Publications

Below is the list of papers that are part of the Human Cell Atlas.

These have been approved by the HCA Publication Committee (composed of HCA Organising Committee members). The HCA Publication Committee reviews submitted publications to check if they fit within HCA technical scope. This review by the HCA Publication Committee does not serve as peer review.

We encourage you to submit your paper for inclusion within the Human Cell Atlas publications, which can help your paper gain more visibility. Please see here for the Publication Review process.

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Pre-print
Networks
Liver
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors

Spatial transcriptomics of healthy and fibrotic human liver at single-cell resolution

Brianna Watson; Biplab Paul; Liat Amir-Zilberstein; Asa Segerstolpe; Raza Rahman; Angela Shih; Jacques Deguine; Ramnik Xavier; Jeffrey R Moffitt; Alan C Mullen

bioRxiv 2024;2024.02.02.578633

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Networks
Breast
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors

A single-cell atlas enables mapping of homeostatic cellular shifts in the adult human breast.

Reed AD; Pensa S; Steif A; Stenning J; Kunz DJ; Porter LJ; Hua K; He P; Twigger AJ; Siu AJQ et al

Nature Genetics 2024

Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing to compile a human breast cell atlas assembled from 55 donors that had undergone reduction mammoplasties or risk reduction mastectomies. From more than 800,000 cells we identified 41 cell subclusters across the epithelial, immune and stromal compartments. The contribution of these different clusters varied according to the natural history of the tissue. Age, parity and germline mutations, known to modulate the risk of developing breast cancer, affected the homeostatic cellular state of the breast in different ways. We found that immune cells from BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers had a distinct gene expression signature indicative of potential immune exhaustion, which was validated by immunohistochemistry. This suggests that immune-escape mechanisms could manifest in non-cancerous tissues very early during tumor initiation. This atlas is a rich resource that can be used to inform novel approaches for early detection and prevention of breast cancer.

Pre-print
Networks
Reproduction
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors

Cellular heterogeneity and dynamics of the human uterus in healthy premenopausal women.

Ulrich ND; Vargo A; Ma Q; Shen YC; Hannum DF; Gurczynski SJ; Moore BB; Schon S; Lieberman R; Shikanov A et al

bioRxiv 2024

The human uterus is a complex and dynamic organ whose lining grows, remodels, and regenerates in every menstrual cycle or upon tissue damage. Here we applied single-cell RNA sequencing to profile more the 50,000 uterine cells from both the endometrium and myometrium of 5 healthy premenopausal individuals, and jointly analyzed the data with a previously published dataset from 15 subjects. The resulting normal uterus cell atlas contains more than 167K cells representing the lymphatic endothelium, blood endothelium, stromal, ciliated epithelium, unciliated epithelium, and immune cell populations. Focused analyses within each major cell type and comparisons with subtype labels from prior studies allowed us to document supporting evidence, resolve naming conflicts, and to propose a consensus annotation system of 39 subtypes. We release their gene expression centroids, differentially expressed genes, and mRNA patterns of literature-based markers as a shared community resource. We find many subtypes show dynamic changes over different phases of the cycle and identify multiple potential progenitor cells: compartment-wide progenitors for each major cell type, transitional cells that are upstream of other subtypes, and potential cross-lineage multipotent stromal progenitors that may be capable of replenishing the epithelial, stromal, and endothelial compartments. When compared to the healthy premenopausal samples, a postpartum and a postmenopausal uterus sample revealed substantially altered tissue composition, involving the rise or fall of stromal, endothelial, and immune cells. The cell taxonomy and molecular markers we report here are expected to inform studies of both basic biology of uterine function and its disorders.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Reproduction
Topics
Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Cellular atlas of the human ovary using morphologically guided spatial transcriptomics and single-cell sequencing.

Jones ASK; Hannum DF; Machlin JH; Tan A; Ma Q; Ulrich ND; Shen YC; Ciarelli M; Padmanabhan V; Marsh EE et al

Science advances 2024;10;14;eadm7506

The reproductive and endocrine functions of the ovary involve spatially defined interactions among specialized cell populations. Despite the ovary's importance in fertility and endocrine health, functional attributes of ovarian cells are largely uncharacterized. Here, we profiled >18,000 genes in 257 regions from the ovaries of two premenopausal donors to examine the functional units in the ovary. We also generated single-cell RNA sequencing data for 21,198 cells from three additional donors and identified four major cell types and four immune cell subtypes. Custom selection of sampling areas revealed distinct gene activities for oocytes, theca, and granulosa cells. These data contributed panels of oocyte-, theca-, and granulosa-specific genes, thus expanding the knowledge of molecular programs driving follicle development. Serial samples around oocytes and across the cortex and medulla uncovered previously unappreciated variation of hormone and extracellular matrix remodeling activities. This combined spatial and single-cell atlas serves as a resource for future studies of rare cells and pathological states in the ovary.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Development, Gut, Kidney, Lung, Organoid
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors

Single-cell guided prenatal derivation of primary fetal epithelial organoids from human amniotic and tracheal fluids.

Gerli MFM; Calà G; Beesley MA; Sina B; Tullie L; Sun KY; Panariello F; Michielin F; Davidson JR; Russo FM et al

Nature Medicine 2024

Isolation of tissue-specific fetal stem cells and derivation of primary organoids is limited to samples obtained from termination of pregnancies, hampering prenatal investigation of fetal development and congenital diseases. Therefore, new patient-specific in vitro models are needed. To this aim, isolation and expansion of fetal stem cells during pregnancy, without the need for tissue samples or reprogramming, would be advantageous. Amniotic fluid (AF) is a source of cells from multiple developing organs. Using single-cell analysis, we characterized the cellular identities present in human AF. We identified and isolated viable epithelial stem/progenitor cells of fetal gastrointestinal, renal and pulmonary origin. Upon culture, these cells formed clonal epithelial organoids, manifesting small intestine, kidney tubule and lung identity. AF organoids exhibit transcriptomic, protein expression and functional features of their tissue of origin. With relevance for prenatal disease modeling, we derived lung organoids from AF and tracheal fluid cells of congenital diaphragmatic hernia fetuses, recapitulating some features of the disease. AF organoids are derived in a timeline compatible with prenatal intervention, potentially allowing investigation of therapeutic tools and regenerative medicine strategies personalized to the fetus at clinically relevant developmental stages.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Development, Musculoskeletal, Skin
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

A human embryonic limb cell atlas resolved in space and time

Zhang, Bao; He, Peng; Lawrence, John E. G.; Wang, Shuaiyu; Tuck, Elizabeth; Williams, Brian A.; Roberts, Kenny; Kleshchevnikov, Vitalii; Mamanova, Lira; Bolt, Liam et al

Nature 2023;1-11

Human limbs emerge during the fourth post-conception week as mesenchymal buds, which develop into fully formed limbs over the subsequent months1. This process is orchestrated by numerous temporally and spatially restricted gene expression programmes, making congenital alterations in phenotype common2. Decades of work with model organisms have defined the fundamental mechanisms underlying vertebrate limb development, but an in-depth characterization of this process in humans has yet to be performed. Here we detail human embryonic limb development across space and time using single-cell and spatial transcriptomics. We demonstrate extensive diversification of cells from a few multipotent progenitors to myriad differentiated cell states, including several novel cell populations. We uncover two waves of human muscle development, each characterized by different cell states regulated by separate gene expression programmes, and identify musculin (MSC) as a key transcriptional repressor maintaining muscle stem cell identity. Through assembly of multiple anatomically continuous spatial transcriptomic samples using VisiumStitcher, we map cells across a sagittal section of a whole fetal hindlimb. We reveal a clear anatomical segregation between genes linked to brachydactyly and polysyndactyly, and uncover transcriptionally and spatially distinct populations of the mesenchyme in the autopod. Finally, we perform single-cell RNA sequencing on mouse embryonic limbs to facilitate cross-species developmental comparison, finding substantial homology between the two species. Using single-cell and spatial transcriptomics, human embryonic limb development across space and time and the diversification and cross-species conservation of cells are demonstrated.

Press release

Pre-print

A deep lung cell atlas reveals cytokine-mediated lineage switching of a rare cell progenitor of the human airway epithelium

Avinash Waghray; Isha Monga; Brian Lin; Viral Shah; Michal Slyper; Bruno Giotti; Jiajie Xu; Julia Waldman; Danielle Dionne; Lan T Nguyen et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.11.28.569028

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print

scSemiProfiler: Advancing Large-scale Single-cell Studies through Semi-profiling with Deep Generative Models and Active Learning

Jingtao Wang; Gregory Joseph Fonseca; Jun Ding

bioRxiv 2023;2023.11.20.567929

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print

Spatially resolved single-cell atlas of the lung in fatal Covid19 in an African population reveals a distinct cellular signature and an interferon gamma dominated response

James Nyirenda; Olympia Hardy; João Da Silva Filho; Vanessa Herder; Charalampos Attipa; Charles Ndovi; Memory Siwombo; Takondwa Namalima; Leticia Suwedi; Watipenge Nyasulu et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.11.16.566964

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Networks
Genetic diversity
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

A single-cell atlas of transcribed cis-regulatory elements in the human genome

Jonathan Moody; Tsukasa Kouno; Miki Kojima; Ikuko Koya; Julio Leon; Akari Suzuki; Akira Hasegawa; Taishin Akiyama; Nobuko Akiyama; Masayuki Amagai et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.11.13.566791

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print

Integrated multi-omics single cell atlas of the human retina

Jin Li; Jun Wang; Ignacio L Ibarra; Xuesen Cheng; Malte D Luecken; Jiaxiong Lu; Aboozar Monavarfeshani; Wenjun Yan; Yiqiao Zheng; Zhen Zuo et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.11.07.566105

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print

Oncogenic RAS-Pathway Activation Drives Oncofetal Reprogramming and Creates Therapeutic Vulnerabilities in Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

Mark Hartmann; Maximilian Schönung; Jovana Rajak; Valentin Maurer; Ling Hai; Katharina Bauer; Mariam Hakobyan; Sina Staeble; Jens Langstein; Laura Jardine et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.10.27.563754

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print

Early human fetal lung atlas reveals the temporal dynamics of epithelial cell plasticity

Henry Quach; Spencer Farrell; Kayshani Kanagarajah; Michael Wu; Xiaoqiao Xu; Prajkta Kallurkar; Andrei Turinsky; Christine E. Bear; Felix Ratjen; Sidhartha Goyal et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.10.27.564403

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print

Pan-cancer profiling of tumor-infiltrating natural killer cells through transcriptional reference mapping

Herman K Netskar; Aline Pfefferle; Jode P Goodridge; Ebba Sohlberg; Olli Dufva; Sarah Teichmann; Trevor Clancy; amir horowitz; Karl-Johan Malmberg

bioRxiv 2023;2023.10.26.564050

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print

Iterative spatial protein and RNA analysis on the same tissue section using MICS technology

Emily Neil; Dongju Park; Rebecca C. Hennessey; Eric C. DiBiasio; Michael DiBuono; Hanna Lafayette; Erica Lloyd; Hsinyi Lo; Julia Femel; Alex Makrigiorgos et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.10.27.564191

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Networks
Genetic diversity, Immune
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Quantification of the escape from X chromosome inactivation with the million cell-scale human single-cell omics datasets reveals heterogeneity of escape across cell types and tissues

Yoshihiko Tomofuji; Ryuya Edahiro; Yuya Shirai; Kian Hong Kock; Kyuto Sonehara; Qingbo S. Wang; Shinichi Namba; Jonathan Moody; Yoshinari Ando; Akari Suzuki et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.10.14.561800

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Networks
Musculoskeletal
Topics
Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods, Benchmarking

A roadmap for delivering a human musculoskeletal cell atlas

Baldwin, Mathew; Buckley, Christopher D.; Guilak, Farshid; Hulley, Philippa; Cribbs, Adam P.; Snelling, Sarah

Nature Reviews Rheumatology 2023;19;11;738-752

Advances in single-cell technologies have transformed the ability to identify the individual cell types present within tissues and organs. The musculoskeletal bionetwork, part of the wider Human Cell Atlas project, aims to create a detailed map of the healthy musculoskeletal system at a single-cell resolution throughout tissue development and across the human lifespan, with complementary generation of data from diseased tissues. Given the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, this detailed reference dataset will be critical to understanding normal musculoskeletal function in growth, homeostasis and ageing. The endeavour will also help to identify the cellular basis for disease and lay the foundations for novel therapeutic approaches to treating diseases of the joints, soft tissues and bone. Here, we present a Roadmap delineating the critical steps required to construct the first draft of a human musculoskeletal cell atlas. We describe the key challenges involved in mapping the extracellular matrix-rich, but cell-poor, tissues of the musculoskeletal system, outline early milestones that have been achieved and describe the vision and directions for a comprehensive musculoskeletal cell atlas. By embracing cutting-edge technologies, integrating diverse datasets and fostering international collaborations, this endeavour has the potential to drive transformative changes in musculoskeletal medicine. A single-cell atlas of the human musculoskeletal system could help to improve the understanding of musculoskeletal function in growth, homeostasis, ageing and disease. This Roadmap delineates the steps required and challenges involved in creating such an atlas.

Pre-print

Human subcutaneous and visceral adipocyte atlases uncover classical and specialized adipocytes and depot-specific patterns

Or Lazarescu; Maya Ziv-Agam; Yulia Haim; Idan Hekselman; Juman Jubran; Ariel Shneyour; Danny Kitsberg; Liron Levin; Idit F Liberty; Uri Yoel et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.09.04.555678

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Computational Methods

Comparative single-cell transcriptomic analysis of primate brains highlights human-specific regulatory evolution

Suresh, Hamsini; Crow, Megan; Jorstad, Nikolas; Hodge, Rebecca; Lein, Ed; Dobin, Alexander; Bakken, Trygve; Gillis, Jesse

Nature Ecology & Evolution 2023;1-14

Enhanced cognitive function in humans is hypothesized to result from cortical expansion and increased cellular diversity. However, the mechanisms that drive these phenotypic innovations remain poorly understood, in part because of the lack of high-quality cellular resolution data in human and non-human primates. Here, we take advantage of single-cell expression data from the middle temporal gyrus of five primates (human, chimp, gorilla, macaque and marmoset) to identify 57 homologous cell types and generate cell type-specific gene co-expression networks for comparative analysis. Although orthologue expression patterns are generally well conserved, we find 24% of genes with extensive differences between human and non-human primates (3,383 out of 14,131), which are also associated with multiple brain disorders. To assess the functional significance of gene expression differences in an evolutionary context, we evaluate changes in network connectivity across meta-analytic co-expression networks from 19 animals. We find that a subset of these genes has deeply conserved co-expression across all non-human animals, and strongly divergent co-expression relationships in humans (139 out of 3,383, <1% of primate orthologues). Genes with human-specific cellular expression and co-expression profiles (such as NHEJ1, GTF2H2, C2 and BBS5) typically evolve under relaxed selective constraints and may drive rapid evolutionary change in brain function. Analysis of single-cell expression data from the middle temporal gyrus of five primates together with analysis of network connectivity across 19 animals identifies genes with human-specific cellular expression and co-expression profiles that might contribute to evolutionary change in brain function.

Pre-print
Networks
Lung
Topics
Human Subjects, Computational Methods

Scalable querying of human cell atlases via a foundational model reveals commonalities across fibrosis-associated macrophages

Graham Heimberg; Tony CY Kuo; Daryle DePianto; Tobias Heigl; Nathaniel Diamant; Omar Salem; Gabriele Scalia; Tommaso Biancalani; Jason Rock; Shannon Turley et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.07.18.549537

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Networks
Oral & Craniofacial
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

Polybacterial intracellular coinfection of epithelial stem cells in periodontitis

Quinn T. Easter; Bruno Fernandes Matuck; Germán Beldorati Stark; Catherine L. Worth; Alexander V. Predeus; Brayon Fremin; Khoa Huynh; Vaishnavi Ranganathan; Diana Pereira; Theresa Weaver et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.08.23.554343

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print

multiDGD: A versatile deep generative model for multi-omics data

Viktoria Schuster; Emma Dann; Anders Krogh; Sarah A. Teichmann

bioRxiv 2023;2023.08.23.554420

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print

Consensus prediction of cell type labels with popV

Can Ergen; Galen Xing; Chenling Xu; Michael Jayasuriya; Erin McGeever; Angela Oliveira Pisco; Aaron Streets; Nir Yosef

bioRxiv 2023;2023.08.18.553912

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Networks
Breast, Eye
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Computational Methods

Single-nucleotide variant calling in single-cell sequencing data with Monopogen

Dou, Jinzhuang; Tan, Yukun; Kock, Kian Hong; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Xuesen; Tan, Le Min; Han, Kyung Yeon; Hon, Chung-Chau; Park, Woong-Yang; Shin, Jay W. et al

Nature Biotechnology 2023;1-10

Single-cell omics technologies enable molecular characterization of diverse cell types and states, but how the resulting transcriptional and epigenetic profiles depend on the cell’s genetic background remains understudied. We describe Monopogen, a computational tool to detect single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) from single-cell sequencing data. Monopogen leverages linkage disequilibrium from external reference panels to identify germline SNVs and detects putative somatic SNVs using allele cosegregating patterns at the cell population level. It can identify 100 K to 3 M germline SNVs achieving a genotyping accuracy of 95%, together with hundreds of putative somatic SNVs. Monopogen-derived genotypes enable global and local ancestry inference and identification of admixed samples. It identifies variants associated with cardiomyocyte metabolic levels and epigenomic programs. It also improves putative somatic SNV detection that enables clonal lineage tracing in primary human clonal hematopoiesis. Monopogen brings together population genetics, cell lineage tracing and single-cell omics to uncover genetic determinants of cellular processes. Monopogen identifies single-nucleotide variants in single-cell sequencing data.

Pre-print

SuperCellCyto: enabling efficient analysis of large scale cytometry datasets

Givanna H. Putri; George Howitt; Felix Marsh-Wakefield; Thomas Ashhurst; Belinda Phipson

bioRxiv 2023;2023.08.14.553168

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print

Identification of novel myeloid-derived cell states with implication in cancer outcome

Gabriela Rapozo Guimarães; Giovanna Resk Maklouf; Cristiane Esteves Teixeira; Leandro de Oliveira Santos; Nayara Gusmão Tessarollo; Marco Antônio Pretti; Nayara Evelin Toledo; Jéssica Gonçalves Vieira da Cruz; Marcelo Falchetti; Mylla M. Dimas et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.01.04.522727

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print

GRouNdGAN: GRN-guided simulation of single-cell RNA-seq data using causal generative adversarial networks

Yazdan Zinati; Abdulrahman Takiddeen; Amin Emad

bioRxiv 2023;2023.07.25.550225

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Networks
Eye, Organoid
Topics
Model Organism Samples, Open Access Data

Deciphering the spatio-temporal transcriptional and chromatin accessibility of human retinal organoid development at the single cell level

Birthe Dorgau; Joseph Collin; Agata Rozanska; Veronika Boczonadi; Marina Moya-Molina; Rafiqul Hussain; Jonathan Coxhead; Tamil Dhanaseelan; Lyle Armstrong; Rachel Queen et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.07.19.549507

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Networks
Kidney

An atlas of healthy and injured cell states and niches in the human kidney

Lake, Blue B.; Menon, Rajasree; Winfree, Seth; Hu, Qiwen; Ferreira, Ricardo Melo; Kalhor, Kian; Barwinska, Daria; Otto, Edgar A.; Ferkowicz, Michael; Diep, Dinh et al

Nature 2023;619;7970;585-594

Understanding kidney disease relies on defining the complexity of cell types and states, their associated molecular profiles and interactions within tissue neighbourhoods1. Here we applied multiple single-cell and single-nucleus assays (>400,000 nuclei or cells) and spatial imaging technologies to a broad spectrum of healthy reference kidneys (45 donors) and diseased kidneys (48 patients). This has provided a high-resolution cellular atlas of 51 main cell types, which include rare and previously undescribed cell populations. The multi-omic approach provides detailed transcriptomic profiles, regulatory factors and spatial localizations spanning the entire kidney. We also define 28 cellular states across nephron segments and interstitium that were altered in kidney injury, encompassing cycling, adaptive (successful or maladaptive repair), transitioning and degenerative states. Molecular signatures permitted the localization of these states within injury neighbourhoods using spatial transcriptomics, while large-scale 3D imaging analysis (around 1.2 million neighbourhoods) provided corresponding linkages to active immune responses. These analyses defined biological pathways that are relevant to injury time-course and niches, including signatures underlying epithelial repair that predicted maladaptive states associated with a decline in kidney function. This integrated multimodal spatial cell atlas of healthy and diseased human kidneys represents a comprehensive benchmark of cellular states, neighbourhoods, outcome-associated signatures and publicly available interactive visualizations. A high-resolution kidney cellular atlas of 51 main cell types, including rare and previously undescribed cell populations, represents a comprehensive benchmark of cellular states, neighbourhoods, outcome-associated signatures and publicly available interactive visualizations.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Heart
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Spatially resolved multiomics of human cardiac niches

Kanemaru, Kazumasa; Cranley, James; Muraro, Daniele; Miranda, Antonio M. A.; Ho, Siew Yen; Wilbrey-Clark, Anna; Patrick Pett, Jan; Polanski, Krzysztof; Richardson, Laura; Litvinukova, Monika et al

Nature 2023;1-10

The function of a cell is defined by its intrinsic characteristics and its niche: the tissue microenvironment in which it dwells. Here we combine single-cell and spatial transcriptomics data to discover cellular niches within eight regions of the human heart. We map cells to microanatomical locations and integrate knowledge-based and unsupervised structural annotations. We also profile the cells of the human cardiac conduction system1. The results revealed their distinctive repertoire of ion channels, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and regulatory networks, and implicated FOXP2 in the pacemaker phenotype. We show that the sinoatrial node is compartmentalized, with a core of pacemaker cells, fibroblasts and glial cells supporting glutamatergic signalling. Using a custom CellPhoneDB.org module, we identify trans-synaptic pacemaker cell interactions with glia. We introduce a druggable target prediction tool, drug2cell, which leverages single-cell profiles and drug–target interactions to provide mechanistic insights into the chronotropic effects of drugs, including GLP-1 analogues. In the epicardium, we show enrichment of both IgG+ and IgA+ plasma cells forming immune niches that may contribute to infection defence. Overall, we provide new clarity to cardiac electro-anatomy and immunology, and our suite of computational approaches can be applied to other tissues and organs. Single-cell and spatial transcriptomic analysis of eight human heart tissues reveals the cellular profiles and tissue architecture of niches including the cardiac conduction system, and a new tool, drug2cell, identifies drug target expression.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Breast
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

A spatially resolved single-cell genomic atlas of the adult human breast

Kumar, Tapsi; Nee, Kevin; Wei, Runmin; He, Siyuan; Nguyen, Quy H.; Bai, Shanshan; Blake, Kerrigan; Pein, Maren; Gong, Yanwen; Sei, Emi et al

Nature 2023;1-11

The adult human breast is comprised of an intricate network of epithelial ducts and lobules that are embedded in connective and adipose tissue1–3. Although most previous studies have focused on the breast epithelial system4–6, many of the non-epithelial cell types remain understudied. Here we constructed the comprehensive Human Breast Cell Atlas (HBCA) at single-cell and spatial resolution. Our single-cell transcriptomics study profiled 714,331 cells from 126 women, and 117,346 nuclei from 20 women, identifying 12 major cell types and 58 biological cell states. These data reveal abundant perivascular, endothelial and immune cell populations, and highly diverse luminal epithelial cell states. Spatial mapping using four different technologies revealed an unexpectedly rich ecosystem of tissue-resident immune cells, as well as distinct molecular differences between ductal and lobular regions. Collectively, these data provide a reference of the adult normal breast tissue for studying mammary biology and diseases such as breast cancer. The Human Breast Cell Atlas identifies 12 major breast cell types and 58 biological cell states, revealing abundant pericyte, endothelial and immune cell populations, and highly diverse luminal epithelial cell states.

Pre-print

TooManyCellsInteractive: a visualization tool for dynamic exploration of single-cell data

Conor Klamann; Christie Lau; Gregory W. Schwartz

bioRxiv 2023;2023.06.16.544954

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Networks
Eye
Topics
Human Subjects, Open Access Data

Multi-omics analysis in human retina uncovers ultraconserved cis-regulatory elements at rare eye disease loci

Victor Lopez Soriano; Alfredo Dueñas Rey; Rajarshi Mukherjee; Genomics England Research Consortium; Frauke Coppieters; Miriam Bauwens; Andy Willaert; Elfride De Baere

medRxiv 2023;2023.06.08.23291052

medRxiv - The Preprint Server for Health Sciences

Peer reviewed
Networks
Lung
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

An integrated cell atlas of the lung in health and disease

Sikkema, Lisa; Ramírez-Suástegui, Ciro; Strobl, Daniel C.; Gillett, Tessa E.; Zappia, Luke; Madissoon, Elo; Markov, Nikolay S.; Zaragosi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Ji, Yuge; Ansari, Meshal et al

Nature Medicine 2023;1-15

Single-cell technologies have transformed our understanding of human tissues. Yet, studies typically capture only a limited number of donors and disagree on cell type definitions. Integrating many single-cell datasets can address these limitations of individual studies and capture the variability present in the population. Here we present the integrated Human Lung Cell Atlas (HLCA), combining 49 datasets of the human respiratory system into a single atlas spanning over 2.4 million cells from 486 individuals. The HLCA presents a consensus cell type re-annotation with matching marker genes, including annotations of rare and previously undescribed cell types. Leveraging the number and diversity of individuals in the HLCA, we identify gene modules that are associated with demographic covariates such as age, sex and body mass index, as well as gene modules changing expression along the proximal-to-distal axis of the bronchial tree. Mapping new data to the HLCA enables rapid data annotation and interpretation. Using the HLCA as a reference for the study of disease, we identify shared cell states across multiple lung diseases, including SPP1+ profibrotic monocyte-derived macrophages in COVID-19, pulmonary fibrosis and lung carcinoma. Overall, the HLCA serves as an example for the development and use of large-scale, cross-dataset organ atlases within the Human Cell Atlas. A single-cell atlas of the human lungs, integrating data from 2.4 million cells from 486 individuals and including samples from healthy and diseased lungs, provides a roadmap for the generation of organ-scale cell atlases.

Press release Press release Press release Press release

Peer reviewed
Networks
Gut
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Benchmarking

A Roadmap for the Human Gut Cell Atlas

Zilbauer, Matthias; James, Kylie R.; Kaur, Mandeep; Pott, Sebastian; Li, Zhixin; Burger, Albert; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Burclaff, Joseph; Jahnsen, Frode L.; Perrone, Francesca et al

Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2023;20;9;597-614

The number of studies investigating the human gastrointestinal tract using various single-cell profiling methods has increased substantially in the past few years. Although this increase provides a unique opportunity for the generation of the first comprehensive Human Gut Cell Atlas (HGCA), there remains a range of major challenges ahead. Above all, the ultimate success will largely depend on a structured and coordinated approach that aligns global efforts undertaken by a large number of research groups. In this Roadmap, we discuss a comprehensive forward-thinking direction for the generation of the HGCA on behalf of the Gut Biological Network of the Human Cell Atlas. Based on the consensus opinion of experts from across the globe, we outline the main requirements for the first complete HGCA by summarizing existing data sets and highlighting anatomical regions and/or tissues with limited coverage. We provide recommendations for future studies and discuss key methodologies and the importance of integrating the healthy gut atlas with related diseases and gut organoids. Importantly, we critically overview the computational tools available and provide recommendations to overcome key challenges. Single-cell profiling studies of the human gastrointestinal tract are increasing, offering an excellent opportunity to generate the first Human Gut Cell Atlas. This Roadmap presents a structured direction towards this goal and provides a detailed overview of the major challenges.

Pre-print

WebAtlas pipeline for integrated single cell and spatial transcriptomic data

Tong Li; David Horsfall; Daniela Basurto-Lozada; Kenny Roberts; Martin Prete; John E G Lawrence; Peng He; Elisabeth Tuck; Josh Moore; Shila Ghazanfar et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.05.19.541329

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Networks
Immune
Topics
Human Subjects, Disease Donors, COVID-19

Human SARS-CoV-2 challenge resolves local and systemic response dynamics

Rik G.H. Lindeboom; Kaylee B. Worlock; Lisa M. Dratva; Masahiro Yoshida; David Scobie; Helen R. Wagstaffe; Laura Richardson; Anna Wilbrey-Clark; Josephine L. Barnes; Krzysztof Polanski et al

medRxiv 2023;2023.04.13.23288227

medRxiv - The Preprint Server for Health Sciences

Peer reviewed
Networks
Immune
Topics
Healthy Donors, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

Dandelion uses the single-cell adaptive immune receptor repertoire to explore lymphocyte developmental origins

Suo, Chenqu; Polanski, Krzysztof; Dann, Emma; Lindeboom, Rik G. H.; Vilarrasa-Blasi, Roser; Vento-Tormo, Roser; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Meyer, Kerstin B.; Dratva, Lisa M.; Tuong, Zewen Kelvin et al

Nature Biotechnology 2023;1-12

Assessment of single-cell gene expression (single-cell RNA sequencing) and adaptive immune receptor (AIR) sequencing (scVDJ-seq) has been invaluable in studying lymphocyte biology. Here we introduce Dandelion, a computational pipeline for scVDJ-seq analysis. It enables the application of standard V(D)J analysis workflows to single-cell datasets, delivering improved V(D)J contig annotation and the identification of nonproductive and partially spliced contigs. We devised a strategy to create an AIR feature space that can be used for both differential V(D)J usage analysis and pseudotime trajectory inference. The application of Dandelion improved the alignment of human thymic development trajectories of double-positive T cells to mature single-positive CD4/CD8 T cells, generating predictions of factors regulating lineage commitment. Dandelion analysis of other cell compartments provided insights into the origins of human B1 cells and ILC/NK cell development, illustrating the power of our approach. Dandelion is available at https://www.github.com/zktuong/dandelion . A computational pipeline enables differential V(D)J usage analysis and pseudotime trajectory inference from single-cell AIR sequencing.

Pre-print
Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Integrated platform for multi-scale molecular imaging and phenotyping of the human brain

Juhyuk Park; Ji Wang; Webster Guan; Lars A. Gjesteby; Dylan Pollack; Lee Kamentsky; Nicholas B. Evans; Jeff Stirman; Xinyi Gu; Chuanxi Zhao et al

bioRxiv 2023;2022.03.13.484171

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Networks
Development, Organoid, Reproduction
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods, Benchmarking

Spatial multiomics map of trophoblast development in early pregnancy

Arutyunyan, Anna; Roberts, Kenny; Troulé, Kevin; Wong, Frederick C. K.; Sheridan, Megan A.; Kats, Ilia; Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Velten, Britta; Hoo, Regina; Ruiz-Morales, Elias R. et al

Nature 2023;1-9

The relationship between the human placenta—the extraembryonic organ made by the fetus, and the decidua—the mucosal layer of the uterus, is essential to nurture and protect the fetus during pregnancy. Extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs) derived from placental villi infiltrate the decidua, transforming the maternal arteries into high-conductance vessels1. Defects in trophoblast invasion and arterial transformation established during early pregnancy underlie common pregnancy disorders such as pre-eclampsia2. Here we have generated a spatially resolved multiomics single-cell atlas of the entire human maternal–fetal interface including the myometrium, which enables us to resolve the full trajectory of trophoblast differentiation. We have used this cellular map to infer the possible transcription factors mediating EVT invasion and show that they are preserved in in vitro models of EVT differentiation from primary trophoblast organoids3,4 and trophoblast stem cells5. We define the transcriptomes of the final cell states of trophoblast invasion: placental bed giant cells (fused multinucleated EVTs) and endovascular EVTs (which form plugs inside the maternal arteries). We predict the cell–cell communication events contributing to trophoblast invasion and placental bed giant cell formation, and model the dual role of interstitial EVTs and endovascular EVTs in mediating arterial transformation during early pregnancy. Together, our data provide a comprehensive analysis of postimplantation trophoblast differentiation that can be used to inform the design of experimental models of the human placenta in early pregnancy. A multiomics single-cell atlas of the human maternal–fetal interface including the myometrium, combining spatial transcriptomics data with chromatin accessibility, provides a comprehensive analysis of cell states as placental cells infiltrate the uterus during early pregnancy.

Press release

Pre-print
Networks
Lung
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors

Airway epithelial response to RSV is impaired in multiciliated and goblet cells in asthma

Aurore C. A. Gay; Martin Banchero; Orestes A. Carpaij; Tessa Kole; Leonie Apperloo; Djoke van Gosliga; Putri Ayu Fajar; Gerard H. Koppelman; Louis Bont; Rudi W. Hendriks et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.03.16.532356

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Networks
Development, Immune, Organoid
Topics
Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Gene-level alignment of single cell trajectories informs the progression of in vitro T cell differentiation

Dinithi Sumanaweera; Chenqu Suo; Daniele Muraro; Emma Dann; Krzysztof Polanski; Alexander Steemers; Jong-Eun Park; Bianca Dumitrascu; Sarah Teichmann

bioRxiv 2023;2023.03.08.531713

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Topics
Computational Methods

TACCO unifies annotation transfer and decomposition of cell identities for single-cell and spatial omics

Mages, Simon; Moriel, Noa; Avraham-Davidi, Inbal; Murray, Evan; Watter, Jan; Chen, Fei; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Klughammer, Johanna; Regev, Aviv; Nitzan, Mor

Nature Biotechnology 2023;1-9

Transferring annotations of single-cell-, spatial- and multi-omics data is often challenging owing both to technical limitations, such as low spatial resolution or high dropout fraction, and to biological variations, such as continuous spectra of cell states. Based on the concept that these data are often best described as continuous mixtures of cells or molecules, we present a computational framework for the transfer of annotations to cells and their combinations (TACCO), which consists of an optimal transport model extended with different wrappers to annotate a wide variety of data. We apply TACCO to identify cell types and states, decipher spatiomolecular tissue structure at the cell and molecular level and resolve differentiation trajectories using synthetic and biological datasets. While matching or exceeding the accuracy of specialized tools for the individual tasks, TACCO reduces the computational requirements by up to an order of magnitude and scales to larger datasets (for example, considering the runtime of annotation transfer for 1 M simulated dropout observations). Annotation transfer from reference to new datasets is improved with a probabilistic approach.

Pre-print
Networks
Lung
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Experimental Methods

The emergence of goblet inflammatory or ITGB6hi nasal progenitor cells determines age-associated SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis

Maximillian Woodall; Ana-Maria Cujba; Kaylee B. Worlock; Katie-Marie Case; Tereza Masonou; Masahiro Yoshida; Krzysztof Polanski; Ni Huang; Rik G. H. Lindeboom; Lira Mamanova et al

bioRxiv 2023;2023.01.16.524211

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print

Cell type-specific gene expression dynamics during human brain maturation.

Steyn C; Mishi R; Fillmore S; Verhoog MB; More J; Rohlwink UK; Melvill R; Butler J; Enslin JMN; Jacobs M et al

bioRxiv 2023

The human brain undergoes protracted post-natal maturation, guided by dynamic changes in gene expression. To date, studies exploring these processes have used bulk tissue analyses, which mask cell type-specific gene expression dynamics. Here, using single nucleus (sn)RNA-Sseq on temporal lobe tissue, including samples of African ancestry, we build a joint paediatric and adult atlas of 54 cell subtypes, which we verify with spatial transcriptomics. We explore the differences in cell states between paediatric and adult cell types, revealing the genes and pathways that change during brain maturation. Our results highlight excitatory neuron subtypes, including the LTK and FREM subtypes, that show elevated expression of genes associated with cognition and synaptic plasticity in paediatric tissue. The new resources we present here improve our understanding of the brain during a critical period of its development and contribute to global efforts to build an inclusive cell map of the brain.

Pre-print
Networks
Nervous system

Cell type-specific gene expression dynamics during human brain maturation.

Steyn C; Mishi R; Fillmore S; Verhoog MB; More J; Rohlwink UK; Melvill R; Butler J; Enslin JMN; Jacobs M et al

bioRxiv 2023

The human brain undergoes protracted post-natal maturation, guided by dynamic changes in gene expression. To date, studies exploring these processes have used bulk tissue analyses, which mask cell type-specific gene expression dynamics. Here, using single nucleus (sn)RNA-Sseq on temporal lobe tissue, including samples of African ancestry, we build a joint paediatric and adult atlas of 54 cell subtypes, which we verify with spatial transcriptomics. We explore the differences in cell states between paediatric and adult cell types, revealing the genes and pathways that change during brain maturation. Our results highlight excitatory neuron subtypes, including the LTK and FREM subtypes, that show elevated expression of genes associated with cognition and synaptic plasticity in paediatric tissue. The new resources we present here improve our understanding of the brain during a critical period of its development and contribute to global efforts to build an inclusive cell map of the brain.

Pre-print
Networks
Breast, Lung
Topics
Human Subjects, Disease Donors, Computational Methods

Inference of single cell profiles from histology stains with the Single-Cell omics from Histology Analysis Framework (SCHAF).

Comiter C; Vaishnav ED; Ciampricotti M; Li B; Yang Y; Rodig SJ; Turner M; Pfaff KL; Jané-Valbuena J; Slyper M et al

bioRxiv 2023

Tissue biology involves an intricate balance between cell-intrinsic processes and interactions between cells organized in specific spatial patterns, which can be respectively captured by single-cell profiling methods, such as single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq), and histology imaging data, such as Hematoxylin-and-Eosin (H&E) stains. While single-cell profiles provide rich molecular information, they can be challenging to collect routinely and do not have spatial resolution. Conversely, histological H&E assays have been a cornerstone of tissue pathology for decades, but do not directly report on molecular details, although the observed structure they capture arises from molecules and cells. Here, we leverage adversarial machine learning to develop SCHAF (Single-Cell omics from Histology Analysis Framework), to generate a tissue sample's spatially-resolved single-cell omics dataset from its H&E histology image. We demonstrate SCHAF on two types of human tumors-from lung and metastatic breast cancer-training with matched samples analyzed by both sc/snRNA-seq and by H&E staining. SCHAF generated appropriate single-cell profiles from histology images in test data, related them spatially, and compared well to ground-truth scRNA-Seq, expert pathologist annotations, or direct MERFISH measurements. SCHAF opens the way to next-generation H&E2.0 analyses and an integrated understanding of cell and tissue biology in health and disease.

Pre-print

Inference of single cell profiles from histology stains with the Single-Cell omics from Histology Analysis Framework (SCHAF).

Comiter C; Vaishnav ED; Ciampricotti M; Li B; Yang Y; Rodig SJ; Turner M; Pfaff KL; Jané-Valbuena J; Slyper M et al

bioRxiv 2023

Tissue biology involves an intricate balance between cell-intrinsic processes and interactions between cells organized in specific spatial patterns, which can be respectively captured by single-cell profiling methods, such as single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq), and histology imaging data, such as Hematoxylin-and-Eosin (H&E) stains. While single-cell profiles provide rich molecular information, they can be challenging to collect routinely and do not have spatial resolution. Conversely, histological H&E assays have been a cornerstone of tissue pathology for decades, but do not directly report on molecular details, although the observed structure they capture arises from molecules and cells. Here, we leverage adversarial machine learning to develop SCHAF (Single-Cell omics from Histology Analysis Framework), to generate a tissue sample's spatially-resolved single-cell omics dataset from its H&E histology image. We demonstrate SCHAF on two types of human tumors-from lung and metastatic breast cancer-training with matched samples analyzed by both sc/snRNA-seq and by H&E staining. SCHAF generated appropriate single-cell profiles from histology images in test data, related them spatially, and compared well to ground-truth scRNA-Seq, expert pathologist annotations, or direct MERFISH measurements. SCHAF opens the way to next-generation H&E2.0 analyses and an integrated understanding of cell and tissue biology in health and disease.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Development

A tridimensional atlas of the developing human head.

Blain R; Couly G; Shotar E; Blévinal J; Toupin M; Favre A; Abjaghou A; Inoue M; Hernández-Garzón E; Clarençon F et al

Cell 2023;186;26;5910-5924.e17

The evolution and development of the head have long captivated researchers due to the crucial role of the head as the gateway for sensory stimuli and the intricate structural complexity of the head. Although significant progress has been made in understanding head development in various vertebrate species, our knowledge of early human head ontogeny remains limited. Here, we used advanced whole-mount immunostaining and 3D imaging techniques to generate a comprehensive 3D cellular atlas of human head embryogenesis. We present detailed developmental series of diverse head tissues and cell types, including muscles, vasculature, cartilage, peripheral nerves, and exocrine glands. These datasets, accessible through a dedicated web interface, provide insights into human embryogenesis. We offer perspectives on the branching morphogenesis of human exocrine glands and unknown features of the development of neurovascular and skeletomuscular structures. These insights into human embryology have important implications for understanding craniofacial defects and neurological disorders and advancing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Press release

Peer reviewed
Networks
Immune, Nervous system
Topics
Computational Methods, Benchmarking

Automatic cell-type harmonization and integration across Human Cell Atlas datasets.

Xu C; Prete M; Webb S; Jardine L; Stewart BJ; Hoo R; He P; Meyer KB; Teichmann SA

Cell 2023;186;26;5876-5891.e20

Harmonizing cell types across the single-cell community and assembling them into a common framework is central to building a standardized Human Cell Atlas. Here, we present CellHint, a predictive clustering tree-based tool to resolve cell-type differences in annotation resolution and technical biases across datasets. CellHint accurately quantifies cell-cell transcriptomic similarities and places cell types into a relationship graph that hierarchically defines shared and unique cell subtypes. Application to multiple immune datasets recapitulates expert-curated annotations. CellHint also reveals underexplored relationships between healthy and diseased lung cell states in eight diseases. Furthermore, we present a workflow for fast cross-dataset integration guided by harmonized cell types and cell hierarchy, which uncovers underappreciated cell types in adult human hippocampus. Finally, we apply CellHint to 12 tissues from 38 datasets, providing a deeply curated cross-tissue database with ∼3.7 million cells and various machine learning models for automatic cell annotation across human tissues.

Press release

Peer reviewed
Networks
Development, Gut, Immune, Kidney, Liver, Organoid, Reproduction, Skin
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods, Benchmarking

Yolk sac cell atlas reveals multiorgan functions during human early development.

Goh I; Botting RA; Rose A; Webb S; Engelbert J; Gitton Y; Stephenson E; Quiroga Londoño M; Mather M; Mende N et al

Science 2023;381;6659;eadd7564

The extraembryonic yolk sac (YS) ensures delivery of nutritional support and oxygen to the developing embryo but remains ill-defined in humans. We therefore assembled a comprehensive multiomic reference of the human YS from 3 to 8 postconception weeks by integrating single-cell protein and gene expression data. Beyond its recognized role as a site of hematopoiesis, we highlight roles in metabolism, coagulation, vascular development, and hematopoietic regulation. We reconstructed the emergence and decline of YS hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from hemogenic endothelium and revealed a YS-specific accelerated route to macrophage production that seeds developing organs. The multiorgan functions of the YS are superseded as intraembryonic organs develop, effecting a multifaceted relay of vital functions as pregnancy proceeds.

Press release

Peer reviewed
Networks
Development, Immune, Lung
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors

Early human lung immune cell development and its role in epithelial cell fate.

Barnes JL; Yoshida M; He P; Worlock KB; Lindeboom RGH; Suo C; Pett JP; Wilbrey-Clark A; Dann E; Mamanova L et al

Science immunology 2023;8;90;eadf9988

Studies of human lung development have focused on epithelial and mesenchymal cell types and function, but much less is known about the developing lung immune cells, even though the airways are a major site of mucosal immunity after birth. An unanswered question is whether tissue-resident immune cells play a role in shaping the tissue as it develops in utero. Here, we profiled human embryonic and fetal lung immune cells using scRNA-seq, smFISH, and immunohistochemistry. At the embryonic stage, we observed an early wave of innate immune cells, including innate lymphoid cells, natural killer cells, myeloid cells, and lineage progenitors. By the canalicular stage, we detected naive T lymphocytes expressing high levels of cytotoxicity genes and the presence of mature B lymphocytes, including B-1 cells. Our analysis suggests that fetal lungs provide a niche for full B cell maturation. Given the presence and diversity of immune cells during development, we also investigated their possible effect on epithelial maturation. We found that IL-1β drives epithelial progenitor exit from self-renewal and differentiation to basal cells in vitro. In vivo, IL-1β-producing myeloid cells were found throughout the lung and adjacent to epithelial tips, suggesting that immune cells may direct human lung epithelial development.

Press release

Peer reviewed
Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Interindividual variation in human cortical cell type abundance and expression.

Johansen N; Somasundaram S; Travaglini KJ; Yanny AM; Shumyatcher M; Casper T; Cobbs C; Dee N; Ellenbogen R; Ferreira M et al

Science 2023;382;6667;eadf2359

Single-cell transcriptomic studies have identified a conserved set of neocortical cell types from small postmortem cohorts. We extended these efforts by assessing cell type variation across 75 adult individuals undergoing epilepsy and tumor surgeries. Nearly all nuclei map to one of 125 robust cell types identified in the middle temporal gyrus. However, we found interindividual variance in abundances and gene expression signatures, particularly in deep-layer glutamatergic neurons and microglia. A minority of donor variance is explainable by age, sex, ancestry, disease state, and cell state. Genomic variation was associated with expression of 150 to 250 genes for most cell types. This characterization of cellular variation provides a baseline for cell typing in health and disease.

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Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

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Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Transcriptomic cytoarchitecture reveals principles of human neocortex organization.

Jorstad NL; Close J; Johansen N; Yanny AM; Barkan ER; Travaglini KJ; Bertagnolli D; Campos J; Casper T; Crichton K et al

Science 2023;382;6667;eadf6812

Variation in cytoarchitecture is the basis for the histological definition of cortical areas. We used single cell transcriptomics and performed cellular characterization of the human cortex to better understand cortical areal specialization. Single-nucleus RNA-sequencing of 8 areas spanning cortical structural variation showed a highly consistent cellular makeup for 24 cell subclasses. However, proportions of excitatory neuron subclasses varied substantially, likely reflecting differences in connectivity across primary sensorimotor and association cortices. Laminar organization of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes also differed across areas. Primary visual cortex showed characteristic organization with major changes in the excitatory to inhibitory neuron ratio, expansion of layer 4 excitatory neurons, and specialized inhibitory neurons. These results lay the groundwork for a refined cellular and molecular characterization of human cortical cytoarchitecture and areal specialization.

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BICCN-Brain - Science

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Nervous system
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Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Single-cell analysis of prenatal and postnatal human cortical development.

Velmeshev D; Perez Y; Yan Z; Valencia JE; Castaneda-Castellanos DR; Wang L; Schirmer L; Mayer S; Wick B; Wang S et al

Science 2023;382;6667;eadf0834

We analyzed >700,000 single-nucleus RNA sequencing profiles from 106 donors during prenatal and postnatal developmental stages and identified lineage-specific programs that underlie the development of specific subtypes of excitatory cortical neurons, interneurons, glial cell types, and brain vasculature. By leveraging single-nucleus chromatin accessibility data, we delineated enhancer gene regulatory networks and transcription factors that control commitment of specific cortical lineages. By intersecting our results with genetic risk factors for human brain diseases, we identified the cortical cell types and lineages most vulnerable to genetic insults of different brain disorders, especially autism. We find that lineage-specific gene expression programs up-regulated in female cells are especially enriched for the genetic risk factors of autism. Our study captures the molecular progression of cortical lineages across human development.

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Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

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Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Transcriptomic diversity of cell types across the adult human brain.

Siletti K; Hodge R; Mossi Albiach A; Lee KW; Ding SL; Hu L; Lönnerberg P; Bakken T; Casper T; Clark M et al

Science 2023;382;6667;eadd7046

The human brain directs complex behaviors, ranging from fine motor skills to abstract intelligence, but the diversity of cell types that support these skills has not been fully described. In this work, we used single-nucleus RNA sequencing to systematically survey cells across the entire adult human brain. We sampled more than three million nuclei from approximately 100 dissections across the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain in three postmortem donors. Our analysis identified 461 clusters and 3313 subclusters organized largely according to developmental origins and revealing high diversity in midbrain and hindbrain neurons. Astrocytes and oligodendrocyte-lineage cells also exhibited regional diversity at multiple scales. The transcriptomic census of the entire human brain presented in this work provides a resource for understanding the molecular diversity of the human brain in health and disease.

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BICCN-Brain - Science

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Nervous system
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Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Comprehensive cell atlas of the first-trimester developing human brain.

Braun E; Danan-Gotthold M; Borm LE; Lee KW; Vinsland E; Lönnerberg P; Hu L; Li X; He X; Andrusivová Ž et al

Science 2023;382;6667;eadf1226

The adult human brain comprises more than a thousand distinct neuronal and glial cell types, a diversity that emerges during early brain development. To reveal the precise sequence of events during early brain development, we used single-cell RNA sequencing and spatial transcriptomics and uncovered cell states and trajectories in human brains at 5 to 14 postconceptional weeks (pcw). We identified 12 major classes that are organized as ~600 distinct cell states, which map to precise spatial anatomical domains at 5 pcw. We described detailed differentiation trajectories of the human forebrain and midbrain and found a large number of region-specific glioblasts that mature into distinct pre-astrocytes and pre-oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Our findings reveal the establishment of cell types during the first trimester of human brain development.

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BICCN-Brain - Science

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Nervous system
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Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Signature morphoelectric properties of diverse GABAergic interneurons in the human neocortex.

Lee BR; Dalley R; Miller JA; Chartrand T; Close J; Mann R; Mukora A; Ng L; Alfiler L; Baker K et al

Science 2023;382;6667;eadf6484

Human cortex transcriptomic studies have revealed a hierarchical organization of γ-aminobutyric acid-producing (GABAergic) neurons from subclasses to a high diversity of more granular types. Rapid GABAergic neuron viral genetic labeling plus Patch-seq (patch-clamp electrophysiology plus single-cell RNA sequencing) sampling in human brain slices was used to reliably target and analyze GABAergic neuron subclasses and individual transcriptomic types. This characterization elucidated transitions between PVALB and SST subclasses, revealed morphological heterogeneity within an abundant transcriptomic type, identified multiple spatially distinct types of the primate-specialized double bouquet cells (DBCs), and shed light on cellular differences between homologous mouse and human neocortical GABAergic neuron types. These results highlight the importance of multimodal phenotypic characterization for refinement of emerging transcriptomic cell type taxonomies and for understanding conserved and specialized cellular properties of human brain cell types.

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BICCN-Brain - Science

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Nervous system
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Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Single-cell DNA methylation and 3D genome architecture in the human brain.

Tian W; Zhou J; Bartlett A; Zeng Q; Liu H; Castanon RG; Kenworthy M; Altshul J; Valadon C; Aldridge A et al

Science 2023;382;6667;eadf5357

Delineating the gene-regulatory programs underlying complex cell types is fundamental for understanding brain function in health and disease. Here, we comprehensively examined human brain cell epigenomes by probing DNA methylation and chromatin conformation at single-cell resolution in 517 thousand cells (399 thousand neurons and 118 thousand non-neurons) from 46 regions of three adult male brains. We identified 188 cell types and characterized their molecular signatures. Integrative analyses revealed concordant changes in DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility, chromatin organization, and gene expression across cell types, cortical areas, and basal ganglia structures. We further developed single-cell methylation barcodes that reliably predict brain cell types using the methylation status of select genomic sites. This multimodal epigenomic brain cell atlas provides new insights into the complexity of cell-type-specific gene regulation in adult human brains.

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BICCN-Brain - Science

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Nervous system
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Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Morphoelectric and transcriptomic divergence of the layer 1 interneuron repertoire in human versus mouse neocortex.

Chartrand T; Dalley R; Close J; Goriounova NA; Lee BR; Mann R; Miller JA; Molnar G; Mukora A; Alfiler L et al

Science 2023;382;6667;eadf0805

Neocortical layer 1 (L1) is a site of convergence between pyramidal-neuron dendrites and feedback axons where local inhibitory signaling can profoundly shape cortical processing. Evolutionary expansion of human neocortex is marked by distinctive pyramidal neurons with extensive L1 branching, but whether L1 interneurons are similarly diverse is underexplored. Using Patch-seq recordings from human neurosurgical tissue, we identified four transcriptomic subclasses with mouse L1 homologs, along with distinct subtypes and types unmatched in mouse L1. Subclass and subtype comparisons showed stronger transcriptomic differences in human L1 and were correlated with strong morphoelectric variability along dimensions distinct from mouse L1 variability. Accompanied by greater layer thickness and other cytoarchitecture changes, these findings suggest that L1 has diverged in evolution, reflecting the demands of regulating the expanded human neocortical circuit.

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BICCN-Brain - Science

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Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Comparative transcriptomics reveals human-specific cortical features.

Jorstad NL; Song JHT; Exposito-Alonso D; Suresh H; Castro-Pacheco N; Krienen FM; Yanny AM; Close J; Gelfand E; Long B et al

Science 2023;382;6667;eade9516

The cognitive abilities of humans are distinctive among primates, but their molecular and cellular substrates are poorly understood. We used comparative single-nucleus transcriptomics to analyze samples of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) from adult humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, rhesus macaques, and common marmosets to understand human-specific features of the neocortex. Human, chimpanzee, and gorilla MTG showed highly similar cell-type composition and laminar organization as well as a large shift in proportions of deep-layer intratelencephalic-projecting neurons compared with macaque and marmoset MTG. Microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes had more-divergent expression across species compared with neurons or oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and neuronal expression diverged more rapidly on the human lineage. Only a few hundred genes showed human-specific patterning, suggesting that relatively few cellular and molecular changes distinctively define adult human cortical structure.

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BICCN-Brain - Science

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Nervous system
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Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Molecular programs of regional specification and neural stem cell fate progression in macaque telencephalon.

Micali N; Ma S; Li M; Kim SK; Mato-Blanco X; Sindhu SK; Arellano JI; Gao T; Shibata M; Gobeske KT et al

Science 2023;382;6667;eadf3786

During early telencephalic development, intricate processes of regional patterning and neural stem cell (NSC) fate specification take place. However, our understanding of these processes in primates, including both conserved and species-specific features, remains limited. Here, we profiled 761,529 single-cell transcriptomes from multiple regions of the prenatal macaque telencephalon. We deciphered the molecular programs of the early organizing centers and their cross-talk with NSCs, revealing primate-biased galanin-like peptide (GALP) signaling in the anteroventral telencephalon. Regional transcriptomic variations were observed along the frontotemporal axis during early stages of neocortical NSC progression and in neurons and astrocytes. Additionally, we found that genes associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and brain cancer risk might play critical roles in the early telencephalic organizers and during NSC progression.

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Peer reviewed
Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Spatiotemporal molecular dynamics of the developing human thalamus.

Kim CN; Shin D; Wang A; Nowakowski TJ

Science 2023;382;6667;eadf9941

The thalamus plays a central coordinating role in the brain. Thalamic neurons are organized into spatially distinct nuclei, but the molecular architecture of thalamic development is poorly understood, especially in humans. To begin to delineate the molecular trajectories of cell fate specification and organization in the developing human thalamus, we used single-cell and multiplexed spatial transcriptomics. We show that molecularly defined thalamic neurons differentiate in the second trimester of human development and that these neurons organize into spatially and molecularly distinct nuclei. We identified major subtypes of glutamatergic neuron subtypes that are differentially enriched in anatomically distinct nuclei and six subtypes of γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated (GABAergic) neurons that are shared and distinct across thalamic nuclei.

Editorial Editorial Editorial

Peer reviewed
Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

A comparative atlas of single-cell chromatin accessibility in the human brain.

Li YE; Preissl S; Miller M; Johnson ND; Wang Z; Jiao H; Zhu C; Wang Z; Xie Y; Poirion O et al

Science 2023;382;6667;eadf7044

Recent advances in single-cell transcriptomics have illuminated the diverse neuronal and glial cell types within the human brain. However, the regulatory programs governing cell identity and function remain unclear. Using a single-nucleus assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (snATAC-seq), we explored open chromatin landscapes across 1.1 million cells in 42 brain regions from three adults. Integrating this data unveiled 107 distinct cell types and their specific utilization of 544,735 candidate cis-regulatory DNA elements (cCREs) in the human genome. Nearly a third of the cCREs demonstrated conservation and chromatin accessibility in the mouse brain cells. We reveal strong links between specific brain cell types and neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and major depression, and have developed deep learning models to predict the regulatory roles of noncoding risk variants in these disorders.

Editorial Editorial Editorial

Peer reviewed
Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

A marmoset brain cell census reveals regional specialization of cellular identities.

Krienen FM; Levandowski KM; Zaniewski H; Del Rosario RCH; Schroeder ME; Goldman M; Wienisch M; Lutservitz A; Beja-Glasser VF; Chen C et al

Science advances 2023;9;41;eadk3986

The mammalian brain is composed of many brain structures, each with its own ontogenetic and developmental history. We used single-nucleus RNA sequencing to sample over 2.4 million brain cells across 18 locations in the common marmoset, a New World monkey primed for genetic engineering, and examined gene expression patterns of cell types within and across brain structures. The adult transcriptomic identity of most neuronal types is shaped more by developmental origin than by neurotransmitter signaling repertoire. Quantitative mapping of GABAergic types with single-molecule FISH (smFISH) reveals that interneurons in the striatum and neocortex follow distinct spatial principles, and that lateral prefrontal and other higher-order cortical association areas are distinguished by high proportions of VIP+ neurons. We use cell type-specific enhancers to drive AAV-GFP and reconstruct the morphologies of molecularly resolved interneuron types in neocortex and striatum. Our analyses highlight how lineage, local context, and functional class contribute to the transcriptional identity and biodistribution of primate brain cell types.

Editorial Editorial Editorial

Peer reviewed
Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Multi-omic profiling of the developing human cerebral cortex at the single-cell level.

Zhu K; Bendl J; Rahman S; Vicari JM; Coleman C; Clarence T; Latouche O; Tsankova NM; Li A; Brennand KJ et al

Science advances 2023;9;41;eadg3754

The cellular complexity of the human brain is established via dynamic changes in gene expression throughout development that is mediated, in part, by the spatiotemporal activity of cis-regulatory elements (CREs). We simultaneously profiled gene expression and chromatin accessibility in 45,549 cortical nuclei across six broad developmental time points from fetus to adult. We identified cell type-specific domains in which chromatin accessibility is highly correlated with gene expression. Differentiation pseudotime trajectory analysis indicates that chromatin accessibility at CREs precedes transcription and that dynamic changes in chromatin structure play a critical role in neuronal lineage commitment. In addition, we mapped cell type-specific and temporally specific genetic loci implicated in neuropsychiatric traits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Together, our results describe the complex regulation of cell composition at critical stages in lineage determination and shed light on the impact of spatiotemporal alterations in gene expression on neuropsychiatric disease.

Editorial Editorial Editorial

Peer reviewed
Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

A single-cell multi-omic atlas spanning the adult rhesus macaque brain.

Chiou KL; Huang X; Bohlen MO; Tremblay S; DeCasien AR; O'Day DR; Spurrell CH; Gogate AA; Zintel TM; et al

Science advances 2023;9;41;eadh1914

Cataloging the diverse cellular architecture of the primate brain is crucial for understanding cognition, behavior, and disease in humans. Here, we generated a brain-wide single-cell multimodal molecular atlas of the rhesus macaque brain. Together, we profiled 2.58 M transcriptomes and 1.59 M epigenomes from single nuclei sampled from 30 regions across the adult brain. Cell composition differed extensively across the brain, revealing cellular signatures of region-specific functions. We also identified 1.19 M candidate regulatory elements, many previously unidentified, allowing us to explore the landscape of cis-regulatory grammar and neurological disease risk in a cell type-specific manner. Altogether, this multi-omic atlas provides an open resource for investigating the evolution of the human brain and identifying novel targets for disease interventions.

Editorial Editorial Editorial

Peer reviewed
Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

A cellular resolution atlas of Broca's area.

Costantini I; Morgan L; Yang J; Balbastre Y; Varadarajan D; Pesce L; Scardigli M; Mazzamuto G; Gavryusev V; Castelli FM et al

Science advances 2023;9;41;eadg3844

Brain cells are arranged in laminar, nuclear, or columnar structures, spanning a range of scales. Here, we construct a reliable cell census in the frontal lobe of human cerebral cortex at micrometer resolution in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-referenced system using innovative imaging and analysis methodologies. MRI establishes a macroscopic reference coordinate system of laminar and cytoarchitectural boundaries. Cell counting is obtained with a digital stereological approach on the 3D reconstruction at cellular resolution from a custom-made inverted confocal light-sheet fluorescence microscope (LSFM). Mesoscale optical coherence tomography enables the registration of the distorted histological cell typing obtained with LSFM to the MRI-based atlas coordinate system. The outcome is an integrated high-resolution cellular census of Broca's area in a human postmortem specimen, within a whole-brain reference space atlas.

Editorial Editorial Editorial

Peer reviewed
Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Structural and functional specializations of human fast-spiking neurons support fast cortical signaling.

Wilbers R; Galakhova AA; Driessens SLW; Heistek TS; Metodieva VD; Hagemann J; Heyer DB; Mertens EJ; Deng S; Idema S et al

Science advances 2023;9;41;eadf0708

Fast-spiking interneurons (FSINs) provide fast inhibition that synchronizes neuronal activity and is critical for cognitive function. Fast synchronization frequencies are evolutionary conserved in the expanded human neocortex despite larger neuron-to-neuron distances that challenge fast input-output transfer functions of FSINs. Here, we test in human neurons from neurosurgery tissue, which mechanistic specializations of human FSINs explain their fast-signaling properties in human cortex. With morphological reconstructions, multipatch recordings, and biophysical modeling, we find that despite threefold longer dendritic path, human FSINs maintain fast inhibition between connected pyramidal neurons through several mechanisms: stronger synapse strength of excitatory inputs, larger dendrite diameter with reduced complexity, faster AP initiation, and faster and larger inhibitory output, while Na+ current activation/inactivation properties are similar. These adaptations underlie short input-output delays in fast inhibition of human pyramidal neurons through FSINs, explaining how cortical synchronization frequencies are conserved despite expanded and sparse network topology of human cortex.

Editorial Editorial Editorial

Peer reviewed
Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Whole human-brain mapping of single cortical neurons for profiling morphological diversity and stereotypy.

Han X; Guo S; Ji N; Li T; Liu J; Ye X; Wang Y; Yun Z; Xiong F; Rong J et al

Science advances 2023;9;41;eadf3771

Quantifying neuron morphology and distribution at the whole-brain scale is essential to understand the structure and diversity of cell types. It is exceedingly challenging to reuse recent technologies of single-cell labeling and whole-brain imaging to study human brains. We propose adaptive cell tomography (ACTomography), a low-cost, high-throughput, and high-efficacy tomography approach, based on adaptive targeting of individual cells. We established a platform to inject dyes into cortical neurons in surgical tissues of 18 patients with brain tumors or other conditions and one donated fresh postmortem brain. We collected three-dimensional images of 1746 cortical neurons, of which 852 neurons were reconstructed to quantify local dendritic morphology, and mapped to standard atlases. In our data, human neurons are more diverse across brain regions than by subject age or gender. The strong stereotypy within cohorts of brain regions allows generating a statistical tensor field of neuron morphology to characterize anatomical modularity of a human brain.

Editorial Editorial Editorial

Peer reviewed
Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Human voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channel properties underlie sustained fast AP signaling.

Wilbers R; Metodieva VD; Duverdin S; Heyer DB; Galakhova AA; Mertens EJ; Versluis TD; Baayen JC; Idema S; Noske DP et al

Science advances 2023;9;41;eade3300

Human cortical pyramidal neurons are large, have extensive dendritic trees, and yet have unexpectedly fast input-output properties: Rapid subthreshold synaptic membrane potential changes are reliably encoded in timing of action potentials (APs). Here, we tested whether biophysical properties of voltage-gated sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) currents in human pyramidal neurons can explain their fast input-output properties. Human Na+ and K+ currents exhibited more depolarized voltage dependence, slower inactivation, and faster recovery from inactivation compared with their mouse counterparts. Computational modeling showed that despite lower Na+ channel densities in human neurons, the biophysical properties of Na+ channels resulted in higher channel availability and contributed to fast AP kinetics stability. Last, human Na+ channel properties also resulted in a larger dynamic range for encoding of subthreshold membrane potential changes. Thus, biophysical adaptations of voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels enable fast input-output properties of large human pyramidal neurons.

Editorial Editorial Editorial

Peer reviewed
Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Temporal disparity of action potentials triggered in axon initial segments and distal axons in the neocortex.

Rózsa M; Tóth M; Oláh G; Baka J; Lákovics R; Barzó P; Tamás G

Science advances 2023;9;41;eade4511

Neural population activity determines the timing of synaptic inputs, which arrive to dendrites, cell bodies, and axon initial segments (AISs) of cortical neurons. Action potential initiation in the AIS (AIS-APs) is driven by input integration, and the phase preference of AIS-APs during network oscillations is characteristic to cell classes. Distal regions of cortical axons do not receive synaptic inputs, yet experimental induction protocols can trigger retroaxonal action potentials (RA-APs) in axons distal from the soma. We report spontaneously occurring RA-APs in human and rodent cortical interneurons that appear uncorrelated to inputs and population activity. Network-linked triggering of AIS-APs versus input-independent timing of RA-APs of the same interneurons results in disparate temporal contribution of a single cell to in vivo network operation through perisomatic and distal axonal firing.

Editorial Editorial Editorial

Peer reviewed
Collection

BICCN-Brain - Science

Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

A single-cell genomic atlas for maturation of the human cerebellum during early childhood.

Ament SA; Cortes-Gutierrez M; Herb BR; Mocci E; Colantuoni C; McCarthy MM

Science translational medicine 2023;eade1283

Inflammation early in life is a clinically established risk factor for autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, yet the impact of inflammation on human brain development is poorly understood. The cerebellum undergoes protracted postnatal maturation, making it especially susceptible to perturbations contributing to the risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, using single-cell genomics of postmortem cerebellar brain samples, we characterized the postnatal development of cerebellar neurons and glia in 1 to 5 year-old children, comparing individuals who had died while experiencing inflammation to those who had died as a result of an accident. Our analyses revealed that inflammation and postnatal cerebellar maturation are associated with extensive, overlapping transcriptional changes primarily in two subtypes of inhibitory neurons: Purkinje neurons and Golgi neurons. Immunohistochemical analysis of a subset of these postmortem cerebellar samples revealed no change to Purkinje neuron soma size but evidence for increased activation of microglia in those children who had experienced inflammation. Maturation-associated and inflammation-associated gene expression changes included genes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. A gene regulatory network model integrating cell type-specific gene expression and chromatin accessibility identified seven temporally specific gene networks in Purkinje neurons and suggested that inflammation may be associated with the premature downregulation of developmental gene expression programs.

Editorial Editorial Editorial

Pre-print

Scaling cross-tissue single-cell annotation models.

Fischer F; Fischer DS; Biederstedt E; Villani AC; Theis FJ

bioRxiv 2023

Identifying cellular identities (both novel and well-studied) is one of the key use cases in single-cell transcriptomics. While supervised machine learning has been leveraged to automate cell annotation predictions for some time, there has been relatively little progress both in scaling neural networks to large data sets and in constructing models that generalize well across diverse tissues and biological contexts up to whole organisms. Here, we propose scTab, an automated, feature-attention-based cell type prediction model specific to tabular data, and train it using a novel data augmentation scheme across a large corpus of single-cell RNA-seq observations (22.2 million human cells in total). In addition, scTab leverages deep ensembles for uncertainty quantification. Moreover, we account for ontological relationships between labels in the model evaluation to accommodate for differences in annotation granularity across datasets. On this large-scale corpus, we show that cross-tissue annotation requires nonlinear models and that the performance of scTab scales in terms of training dataset size as well as model size - demonstrating the advantage of scTab over current state-of-the-art linear models in this context. Additionally, we show that the proposed data augmentation schema improves model generalization. In summary, we introduce a de novo cell type prediction model for single-cell RNA-seq data that can be trained across a large-scale collection of curated datasets from a diverse selection of human tissues and demonstrate the benefits of using deep learning methods in this paradigm. Our codebase, training data, and model checkpoints are publicly available at https://github.com/theislab/scTab to further enable rigorous benchmarks of foundation models for single-cell RNA-seq data.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Development, Immune
Topics
Experimental Methods

FIPRESCI: droplet microfluidics based combinatorial indexing for massive-scale 5'-end single-cell RNA sequencing.

Li Y; Huang Z; Zhang Z; Wang Q; Li F; Wang S; Ji X; Shu S; Fang X; Jiang L

Genome biology 2023;24;1;70

Single-cell RNA sequencing methods focusing on the 5'-end of transcripts can reveal promoter and enhancer activity and efficiently profile immune receptor repertoire. However, ultra-high-throughput 5'-end single-cell RNA sequencing methods have not been described. We introduce FIPRESCI, 5'-end single-cell combinatorial indexing RNA-Seq, enabling massive sample multiplexing and increasing the throughput of the droplet microfluidics system by over tenfold. We demonstrate FIPRESCI enables the generation of approximately 100,000 single-cell transcriptomes from E10.5 whole mouse embryos in a single-channel experiment, and simultaneous identification of subpopulation differences and T cell receptor signatures of peripheral blood T cells from 12 cancer patients.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Skin
Topics
Human Subjects

A Roadmap for a Consensus Human Skin Cell Atlas and Single-Cell Data Standardization.

Almet AA; Yuan H; Annusver K; Ramos R; Liu Y; Wiedemann J; Sorkin DH; Landén NX; Sonkoly E; Haniffa M et al

The Journal of investigative dermatology 2023;143;9;1667-1677

Single-cell technologies have become essential to driving discovery in both basic and translational investigative dermatology. Despite the multitude of available datasets, a central reference atlas of normal human skin, which can serve as a reference resource for skin cell types, cell states, and their molecular signatures, is still lacking. For any such atlas to receive broad acceptance, participation by many investigators during atlas construction is an essential prerequisite. As part of the Human Cell Atlas project, we have assembled a Skin Biological Network to build a consensus Human Skin Cell Atlas and outline a roadmap toward that goal. We define the drivers of skin diversity to be considered when selecting sequencing datasets for the atlas and list practical hurdles during skin sampling that can result in data gaps and impede comprehensive representation and technical considerations for tissue processing and computational analysis, the accounting for which should minimize biases in cell type enrichments and exclusions and decrease batch effects. By outlining our goals for Atlas 1.0, we discuss how it will uncover new aspects of skin biology.

Press release

Pre-print
Networks
Eye

Spatiotemporal single cell analyses reveal a transient population of retinal progenitor cells in the ciliary margin of developing human retina

Majlinda Lako; Birthe Dorgau; Joseph Collin; Agata Rozanska; Darin Zerti; Moira Crossier; Rafiqul Hussain; Jonathan Coxhead; Tamil Dhanaseelan; Aara Patel et al

Research Square 2023;

The emergence of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) and differentiation to various retinal cell types represent fundamental processes during retinal development. Herein, we provide a comprehensive single cell characterisation of transcriptional and chromatin accessibility changes that underline RPC ...

Peer reviewed

Impact of the Human Cell Atlas on medicine

Rood, Jennifer E.; Maartens, Aidan; Hupalowska, Anna; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Regev, Aviv

Nature Medicine 2022;1-11

Single-cell atlases promise to provide a ‘missing link’ between genes, diseases and therapies. By identifying the specific cell types, states, programs and contexts where disease-implicated genes act, we will understand the mechanisms of disease at the cellular and tissue levels and can use this understanding to develop powerful disease diagnostics; identify promising new drug targets; predict their efficacy, toxicity and resistance mechanisms; and empower new kinds of therapies, from cancer therapies to regenerative medicine. Here, we lay out a vision for the potential of cell atlases to impact the future of medicine, and describe how advances over the past decade have begun to realize this potential in common complex diseases, infectious diseases (including COVID-19), rare diseases and cancer. This Perspective outlines how cell atlases can provide the missing links between genes, diseases and therapies, with advances already being made in several fields, including COVID-19 and cancer.

Pre-print
Networks
Gut, Immune, Liver
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods, Benchmarking

Singletrome: A method to analyze and enhance the transcriptome with long noncoding RNAs for single cell analysis

Raza Ur Rahman; Iftikhar Ahmad; Robert Sparks; Amel Ben Saad; Alan Mullen

bioRxiv 2022;2022.10.31.514182

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Single-cell genomics reveals region-specific developmental trajectories underlying neuronal diversity in the human hypothalamus

Brian R. Herb; Hannah J. Glover; Aparna Bhaduri; Carlo Colantuoni; Tracy L. Bale; Kimberly Siletti; Sten Linnarsson; Rebecca Hodge; Ed Lein; Arnold R. Kriegstein et al

bioRxiv 2022;2021.07.20.453090

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Networks
Nervous system
Topics
Model Organism Samples, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods

Spatial Transcriptomics-correlated Electron Microscopy

Peter Androvic; Martina Schifferer; Katrin Perez Anderson; Ludovico Cantuti-Castelvetri; Hao Ji; Lu Liu; Simon Besson-Girard; Johanna Knoferle; Mikael Simons; Ozgun Gokce

bioRxiv 2022

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Networks
Immune, Oral & Craniofacial
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

An Atlas of Cells in the Human Tonsil

Ramon Massoni-Badosa; Paula Soler-Vila; Sergio Aguilar-Fernández; Juan C. Nieto; Marc Elosua-Bayes; Domenica Marchese; Marta Kulis; Amaia Vilas-Zornoza; Marco Matteo Bühler; Sonal Rashmi et al

bioRxiv 2022;2022.06.24.497299

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print

Human skeletal muscle ageing atlas

Veronika R. Kedlian; Yaning Wang; Tianliang Liu; Xiaoping Chen; Liam Bolt; Zhuojian Shen; Eirini S. Fasouli; Elena Prigmore; Vitalii Kleshchevnikov; Tong Li et al

bioRxiv 2022;2022.05.24.493094

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Networks
Development
Topics
Model Organism Samples, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

Raman2RNA: Live-cell label-free prediction of single-cell RNA expression profiles by Raman microscopy

Koseki J. Kobayashi-Kirschvink; Shreya Gaddam; Taylor James-Sorenson; Emanuelle Grody; Johain R. Ounadjela; Baoliang Ge; Ke Zhang; Jeon Woong Kang; Ramnik Xavier; Peter T. C. So et al

bioRxiv 2022;2021.11.30.470655

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Networks
Gut
Topics
Human Subjects, Disease Donors

Single-Cell Transcriptome Analyses Reveal the Cell Diversity and Developmental Features of Human Gastric and Metaplastic Mucosa

Ayumu Tsubosaka; Daisuke Komura; Hiroto Katoh; Miwako Kakiuchi; Takumi Onoyama; Asami Yamamoto; Hiroyuki Abe; Yasuyuki Seto; Tetsuo Ushiku; Shumpei Ishikawa

bioRxiv 2022

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Networks
Immune
Topics
Human Subjects

Single-cell Atlas of common variable immunodeficiency shows germinal center-associated epigenetic dysregulation in B-cell responses

Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Arutyunyan, Anna; Bonder, Marc Jan; Del Pino-Molina, Lucía; Clark, Stephen J.; de la Calle-Fabregat, Carlos; Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Handfield, Louis-François; Ciudad, Laura; Andrés-León, Eduardo et al

Nature Communications 2022;13;1

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most prevalent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, displays impaired terminal B-cell differentiation and defective antibody responses. Incomplete genetic penetrance and ample phenotypic expressivity in CVID suggest the participation of additional pathogenic mechanisms. Monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for CVID are uniquely valuable for studying the contribution of epigenetics to the disease. Here, we generate a single-cell epigenomics and transcriptomics census of naïve-to-memory B cell differentiation in a CVID-discordant MZ twin pair. Our analysis identifies DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility and transcriptional defects in memory B-cells mirroring defective cell-cell communication upon activation. These findings are validated in a cohort of CVID patients and healthy donors. Our findings provide a comprehensive multi-omics map of alterations in naïve-to-memory B-cell transition in CVID and indicate links between the epigenome and immune cell cross-talk. Our resource, publicly available at the Human Cell Atlas, gives insight into future diagnosis and treatments of CVID patients. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most prevalent primary immunodeficiency. Here the authors perform single-cell omics analyses in CVID-discordant monozygotic twins and show epigenetic and transcriptional alterations associated with activation in memory B cells.

Press release

Peer reviewed
Networks
Reproduction
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Computational Methods

Single nucleus transcriptome and chromatin accessibility of postmortem human pituitaries reveal diverse stem cell regulatory mechanisms.

Zhang Z; Zamojski M; Smith GR; Willis TL; Yianni V; Mendelev N; Pincas H; Seenarine N; Amper MAS; Vasoya M et al

Cell reports 2022;38;10;110467

Despite their importance in tissue homeostasis and renewal, human pituitary stem cells (PSCs) are incompletely characterized. We describe a human single nucleus RNA-seq and ATAC-seq resource from pediatric, adult, and aged postmortem pituitaries (snpituitaryatlas.princeton.edu) and characterize cell-type-specific gene expression and chromatin accessibility programs for all major pituitary cell lineages. We identify uncommitted PSCs, committing progenitor cells, and sex differences. Pseudotime trajectory analysis indicates that early-life PSCs are distinct from the other age groups. Linear modeling of same-cell multiome data identifies regulatory domain accessibility sites and transcription factors that are significantly associated with gene expression in PSCs compared with other cell types and within PSCs. We identify distinct deterministic mechanisms that contribute to heterogeneous marker expression within PSCs. These findings characterize human stem cell lineages and reveal diverse mechanisms regulating key PSC genes and cell type identity.

Pre-print
Networks
Development, Lung
Topics
Human Subjects

Developmental origins of cell heterogeneity in the human lung

Alexandros Sountoulidis; Sergio Marco Salas; Emelie Braun; Christophe Avenel; Joseph Bergenstråhle; Marco Vicari; Paulo Czarnewski; Jonas Theelke; Andreas Liontos; Xesus Abalo et al

bioRxiv 2022

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Networks
Breast
Topics
Human Subjects

Transcriptional changes in the mammary gland during lactation revealed by single cell sequencing of cells from human milk.

Twigger AJ; Engelbrecht LK; Bach K; Schultz-Pernice I; Pensa S; Stenning J; Petricca S; Scheel CH; Khaled WT

Nature Communications 2022;13;1;562

Under normal conditions, the most significant expansion and differentiation of the adult mammary gland occurs in response to systemic reproductive hormones during pregnancy and lactation to enable milk synthesis and secretion to sustain the offspring. However, human mammary tissue remodelling that takes place during pregnancy and lactation remains poorly understood due to the challenge of acquiring samples. We report here single-cell transcriptomic analysis of 110,744 viable breast cells isolated from human milk or non-lactating breast tissue, isolated from nine and seven donors, respectively. We found that human milk largely contains epithelial cells belonging to the luminal lineage and a repertoire of immune cells. Further transcriptomic analysis of the milk cells identified two distinct secretory cell types that shared similarities with luminal progenitors, but no populations comparable to hormone-responsive cells. Taken together, our data offers a reference map and a window into the cellular dynamics that occur during human lactation and may provide further insights on the interplay between pregnancy, lactation and breast cancer.

Peer reviewed

A spatially resolved atlas of the human lung characterizes a gland-associated immune niche.

Madissoon E; Oliver AJ; Kleshchevnikov V; Wilbrey-Clark A; Polanski K; Richoz N; Ribeiro Orsi A; Mamanova L; Bolt L; Elmentaite R et al

Nature Genetics 2022

Single-cell transcriptomics has allowed unprecedented resolution of cell types/states in the human lung, but their spatial context is less well defined. To (re)define tissue architecture of lung and airways, we profiled five proximal-to-distal locations of healthy human lungs in depth using multi-omic single cell/nuclei and spatial transcriptomics (queryable at lungcellatlas.org ). Using computational data integration and analysis, we extend beyond the suspension cell paradigm and discover macro and micro-anatomical tissue compartments including previously unannotated cell types in the epithelial, vascular, stromal and nerve bundle micro-environments. We identify and implicate peribronchial fibroblasts in lung disease. Importantly, we discover and validate a survival niche for IgA plasma cells in the airway submucosal glands (SMG). We show that gland epithelial cells recruit B cells and IgA plasma cells, and promote longevity and antibody secretion locally through expression of CCL28, APRIL and IL-6. This new 'gland-associated immune niche' has implications for respiratory health.

Press release

Peer reviewed
Networks
Kidney
Topics
Human Subjects, Disease Donors

Mapping single-cell transcriptomes in the intra-tumoral and associated territories of kidney cancer.

Li R; Ferdinand JR; Loudon KW; Bowyer GS; Laidlaw S; Muyas F; Mamanova L; Neves JB; Bolt L; Fasouli ES et al

Cancer cell 2022

Tumor behavior is intricately dependent on the oncogenic properties of cancer cells and their multi-cellular interactions. To understand these dependencies within the wider microenvironment, we studied over 270,000 single-cell transcriptomes and 100 microdissected whole exomes from 12 patients with kidney tumors, prior to validation using spatial transcriptomics. Tissues were sampled from multiple regions of the tumor core, the tumor-normal interface, normal surrounding tissues, and peripheral blood. We find that the tissue-type location of CD8 T cell clonotypes largely defines their exhaustion state with intra-tumoral spatial heterogeneity that is not well explained by somatic heterogeneity. De novo mutation calling from single-cell RNA-sequencing data allows us to broadly infer the clonality of stromal cells and lineage-trace myeloid cell development. We report six conserved meta-programs that distinguish tumor cell function, and find an epithelial-mesenchymal transition meta-program highly enriched at the tumor-normal interface that co-localizes with IL1B-expressing macrophages, offering a potential therapeutic target.

Peer reviewed
Collection

Cross-Tissue Analysis - Science

Networks
Development
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

Cross-tissue immune cell analysis reveals tissue-specific features in humans.

Domínguez Conde C; Xu C; Jarvis LB; Rainbow DB; Wells SB; Gomes T; Howlett SK; Suchanek O; Polanski K; King HW et al

Science 2022;376;6594;eabl5197

Despite their crucial role in health and disease, our knowledge of immune cells within human tissues remains limited. We surveyed the immune compartment of 16 tissues from 12 adult donors by single-cell RNA sequencing and VDJ sequencing generating a dataset of ~360,000 cells. To systematically resolve immune cell heterogeneity across tissues, we developed CellTypist, a machine learning tool for rapid and precise cell type annotation. Using this approach, combined with detailed curation, we determined the tissue distribution of finely phenotyped immune cell types, revealing hitherto unappreciated tissue-specific features and clonal architecture of T and B cells. Our multitissue approach lays the foundation for identifying highly resolved immune cell types by leveraging a common reference dataset, tissue-integrated expression analysis, and antigen receptor sequencing.

Editorial Press release Press release

Peer reviewed
Collection

Cross-Tissue Analysis - Science

Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

The Tabula Sapiens: A multiple-organ, single-cell transcriptomic atlas of humans.

; Jones RC; Karkanias J; Krasnow MA; Pisco AO; Quake SR; Salzman J; Yosef N; Bulthaup B; Brown P et al

Science 2022;376;6594;eabl4896

Molecular characterization of cell types using single-cell transcriptome sequencing is revolutionizing cell biology and enabling new insights into the physiology of human organs. We created a human reference atlas comprising nearly 500,000 cells from 24 different tissues and organs, many from the same donor. This atlas enabled molecular characterization of more than 400 cell types, their distribution across tissues, and tissue-specific variation in gene expression. Using multiple tissues from a single donor enabled identification of the clonal distribution of T cells between tissues, identification of the tissue-specific mutation rate in B cells, and analysis of the cell cycle state and proliferative potential of shared cell types across tissues. Cell type-specific RNA splicing was discovered and analyzed across tissues within an individual.

Editorial Press release Press release

Peer reviewed
Collection

Cross-Tissue Analysis - Science

Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

Single-nucleus cross-tissue molecular reference maps toward understanding disease gene function.

Eraslan G; Drokhlyansky E; Anand S; Fiskin E; Subramanian A; Slyper M; Wang J; Van Wittenberghe N; Rouhana JM; Waldman J et al

Science 2022;376;6594;eabl4290

Understanding gene function and regulation in homeostasis and disease requires knowledge of the cellular and tissue contexts in which genes are expressed. Here, we applied four single-nucleus RNA sequencing methods to eight diverse, archived, frozen tissue types from 16 donors and 25 samples, generating a cross-tissue atlas of 209,126 nuclei profiles, which we integrated across tissues, donors, and laboratory methods with a conditional variational autoencoder. Using the resulting cross-tissue atlas, we highlight shared and tissue-specific features of tissue-resident cell populations; identify cell types that might contribute to neuromuscular, metabolic, and immune components of monogenic diseases and the biological processes involved in their pathology; and determine cell types and gene modules that might underlie disease mechanisms for complex traits analyzed by genome-wide association studies.

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Peer reviewed
Networks
Development, Lung
Topics
Human Subjects, Open Access Data

A human fetal lung cell atlas uncovers proximal-distal gradients of differentiation and key regulators of epithelial fates.

He P; Lim K; Sun D; Pett JP; Jeng Q; Polanski K; Dong Z; Bolt L; Richardson L; Mamanova L et al

Cell 2022;185;25;4841-4860.e25

We present a multiomic cell atlas of human lung development that combines single-cell RNA and ATAC sequencing, high-throughput spatial transcriptomics, and single-cell imaging. Coupling single-cell methods with spatial analysis has allowed a comprehensive cellular survey of the epithelial, mesenchymal, endothelial, and erythrocyte/leukocyte compartments from 5-22 post-conception weeks. We identify previously uncharacterized cell states in all compartments. These include developmental-specific secretory progenitors and a subtype of neuroendocrine cell related to human small cell lung cancer. Our datasets are available through our web interface (https://lungcellatlas.org). To illustrate its general utility, we use our cell atlas to generate predictions about cell-cell signaling and transcription factor hierarchies which we rigorously test using organoid models.

Press release

Peer reviewed
Collection

Cross-Tissue Analysis - Science

Networks
Development
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

Mapping the developing human immune system across organs.

Suo C; Dann E; Goh I; Jardine L; Kleshchevnikov V; Park JE; Botting RA; Stephenson E; Engelbert J; Tuong ZK et al

Science 2022;376;6597;eabo0510

Single-cell genomics studies have decoded the immune cell composition of several human prenatal organs but were limited in describing the developing immune system as a distributed network across tissues. We profiled nine prenatal tissues combining single-cell RNA sequencing, antigen-receptor sequencing, and spatial transcriptomics to reconstruct the developing human immune system. This revealed the late acquisition of immune-effector functions by myeloid and lymphoid cell subsets and the maturation of monocytes and T cells before peripheral tissue seeding. Moreover, we uncovered system-wide blood and immune cell development beyond primary hematopoietic organs, characterized human prenatal B1 cells, and shed light on the origin of unconventional T cells. Our atlas provides both valuable data resources and biological insights that will facilitate cell engineering, regenerative medicine, and disease understanding.

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Pre-print
Networks
Musculoskeletal
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

Single nucleus and spatial transcriptomic profiling of human healthy hamstring tendon

Jolet Y. Mimpen; Lorenzo Ramos-Mucci; Claudia Paul; Alina Kurjan; Phillipa Hulley; Chinemerem Ikwuanusi; Steve Gwilym; Mathew J. Baldwin; Adam P. Cribbs; Sarah J.B. Snelling

bioRxiv 2022;2022.12.19.521110

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Networks
Gut
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

An Integrated Taxonomy for Monogenic Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Bolton C; Smillie CS; Pandey S; Elmentaite R; Wei G; Argmann C; Aschenbrenner D; James KR; McGovern DPB; Macchi M et al

Gastroenterology 2022;162;3;859-876

Monogenic forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) illustrate the essential roles of individual genes in pathways and networks safeguarding immune tolerance and gut homeostasis.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Oral & Craniofacial
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data

A Roadmap for the Human Oral and Craniofacial Cell Atlas.

Caetano AJ; ; Sequeira I; Byrd KM

Journal of dental research 2022;101;11;1274-1288

Oral and craniofacial tissues are uniquely adapted for continuous and intricate functioning, including breathing, feeding, and communication. To achieve these vital processes, this complex is supported by incredible tissue diversity, variously composed of epithelia, vessels, cartilage, bone, teeth, ligaments, and muscles, as well as mesenchymal, adipose, and peripheral nervous tissue. Recent single cell and spatial multiomics assays-specifically, genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics-have annotated known and new cell types and cell states in human tissues and animal models, but these concepts remain limitedly explored in the human postnatal oral and craniofacial complex. Here, we highlight the collaborative and coordinated efforts of the newly established Oral and Craniofacial Bionetwork as part of the Human Cell Atlas, which aims to leverage single cell and spatial multiomics approaches to first understand the cellular and molecular makeup of human oral and craniofacial tissues in health and to then address common and rare diseases. These powerful assays have already revealed the cell types that support oral tissues, and they will unravel cell types and molecular networks utilized across development, maintenance, and aging as well as those affected in diseases of the craniofacial complex. This level of integration and cell annotation with partner laboratories across the globe will be critical for understanding how multiple variables, such as age, sex, race, and ancestry, influence these oral and craniofacial niches. Here, we 1) highlight these recent collaborative efforts to employ new single cell and spatial approaches to resolve our collective biology at a higher resolution in health and disease, 2) discuss the vision behind the Oral and Craniofacial Bionetwork, 3) outline the stakeholders who contribute to and will benefit from this network, and 4) outline directions for creating the first Human Oral and Craniofacial Cell Atlas.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Development, Reproduction
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Computational Methods

Single-cell roadmap of human gonadal development.

Garcia-Alonso L; Lorenzi V; Mazzeo CI; Alves-Lopes JP; Roberts K; Sancho-Serra C; Engelbert J; Marečková M; Gruhn WH; Botting RA et al

Nature 2022;607;7919;540-547

Gonadal development is a complex process that involves sex determination followed by divergent maturation into either testes or ovaries1. Historically, limited tissue accessibility, a lack of reliable in vitro models and critical differences between humans and mice have hampered our knowledge of human gonadogenesis, despite its importance in gonadal conditions and infertility. Here, we generated a comprehensive map of first- and second-trimester human gonads using a combination of single-cell and spatial transcriptomics, chromatin accessibility assays and fluorescent microscopy. We extracted human-specific regulatory programmes that control the development of germline and somatic cell lineages by profiling equivalent developmental stages in mice. In both species, we define the somatic cell states present at the time of sex specification, including the bipotent early supporting population that, in males, upregulates the testis-determining factor SRY and sPAX8s, a gonadal lineage located at the gonadal-mesonephric interface. In females, we resolve the cellular and molecular events that give rise to the first and second waves of granulosa cells that compartmentalize the developing ovary to modulate germ cell differentiation. In males, we identify human SIGLEC15+ and TREM2+ fetal testicular macrophages, which signal to somatic cells outside and inside the developing testis cords, respectively. This study provides a comprehensive spatiotemporal map of human and mouse gonadal differentiation, which can guide in vitro gonadogenesis.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Lung
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods, Benchmarking

The discovAIR project: a roadmap towards the Human Lung Cell Atlas.

Luecken MD; Zaragosi LE; Madissoon E; Sikkema L; Firsova AB; De Domenico E; Kümmerle L; Saglam A; Berg M; Gay ACA et al

The European respiratory journal 2022;60;2

The Human Cell Atlas (HCA) consortium aims to establish an atlas of all organs in the healthy human body at single-cell resolution to increase our understanding of basic biological processes that govern development, physiology and anatomy, and to accelerate diagnosis and treatment of disease. The Lung Biological Network of the HCA aims to generate the Human Lung Cell Atlas as a reference for the cellular repertoire, molecular cell states and phenotypes, and cell-cell interactions that characterise normal lung homeostasis in healthy lung tissue. Such a reference atlas of the healthy human lung will facilitate mapping the changes in the cellular landscape in disease. The discovAIR project is one of six pilot actions for the HCA funded by the European Commission in the context of the H2020 framework programme. discovAIR aims to establish the first draft of an integrated Human Lung Cell Atlas, combining single-cell transcriptional and epigenetic profiling with spatially resolving techniques on matched tissue samples, as well as including a number of chronic and infectious diseases of the lung. The integrated Human Lung Cell Atlas will be available as a resource for the wider respiratory community, including basic and translational scientists, clinical medicine, and the private sector, as well as for patients with lung disease and the interested lay public. We anticipate that the Human Lung Cell Atlas will be the founding stone for a more detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of lung diseases, guiding the design of novel diagnostics and preventive or curative interventions.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, COVID-19

Local and systemic responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adults.

Yoshida M; Worlock KB; Huang N; Lindeboom RGH; Butler CR; Kumasaka N; Dominguez Conde C; Mamanova L; Bolt L; Richardson L et al

Nature 2022;602;7896;321-327

It is not fully understood why COVID-19 is typically milder in children1-3. Here, to examine the differences between children and adults in their response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we analysed paediatric and adult patients with COVID-19 as well as healthy control individuals (total n = 93) using single-cell multi-omic profiling of matched nasal, tracheal, bronchial and blood samples. In the airways of healthy paediatric individuals, we observed cells that were already in an interferon-activated state, which after SARS-CoV-2 infection was further induced especially in airway immune cells. We postulate that higher paediatric innate interferon responses restrict viral replication and disease progression. The systemic response in children was characterized by increases in naive lymphocytes and a depletion of natural killer cells, whereas, in adults, cytotoxic T cells and interferon-stimulated subpopulations were significantly increased. We provide evidence that dendritic cells initiate interferon signalling in early infection, and identify epithelial cell states associated with COVID-19 and age. Our matching nasal and blood data show a strong interferon response in the airways with the induction of systemic interferon-stimulated populations, which were substantially reduced in paediatric patients. Together, we provide several mechanisms that explain the milder clinical syndrome observed in children.

Press release

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

Mapping the temporal and spatial dynamics of the human endometrium in vivo and in vitro

Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Handfield, Louis-François; Roberts, Kenny; Nikolakopoulou, Konstantina; Fernando, Ridma C.; Gardner, Lucy; Woodhams, Benjamin; Arutyunyan, Anna; Polanski, Krzysztof; Hoo, Regina et al

Nature Genetics 2021;53;12

The endometrium, the mucosal lining of the uterus, undergoes dynamic changes throughout the menstrual cycle in response to ovarian hormones. We have generated dense single-cell and spatial reference maps of the human uterus and three-dimensional endometrial organoid cultures. We dissect the signaling pathways that determine cell fate of the epithelial lineages in the lumenal and glandular microenvironments. Our benchmark of the endometrial organoids reveals the pathways and cell states regulating differentiation of the secretory and ciliated lineages both in vivo and in vitro. In vitro downregulation of WNT or NOTCH pathways increases the differentiation efficiency along the secretory and ciliated lineages, respectively. We utilize our cellular maps to deconvolute bulk data from endometrial cancers and endometriotic lesions, illuminating the cell types dominating in each of these disorders. These mechanistic insights provide a platform for future development of treatments for common conditions including endometriosis and endometrial carcinoma. Single-cell and spatial transcriptomic profiling of the human endometrium highlights pathways governing the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. Analyses of endometrial organoids show that WNT and NOTCH signaling modulate differentiation into the secretory and ciliated epithelial lineages, respectively.

Editorial Press release

Pre-print
Networks
Lung
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

A spatial multi-omics atlas of the human lung reveals a novel immune cell survival niche

Elo Madissoon; Amanda J. Oliver; Vitalii Kleshchevnikov; Anna Wilbrey-Clark; Krzysztof Polanski; Ana Ribeiro Orsi; Lira Mamanova; Liam Bolt; Nathan Richoz; Rasa Elmentaite et al

bioRxiv 2021

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Networks
Heart, Immune, Kidney, Liver, Lung, Skin
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors

Anatomical structures, cell types and biomarkers of the Human Reference Atlas

Börner, Katy; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Quardokus, Ellen M.; Gee, James C.; Browne, Kristen; Osumi-Sutherland, David; Herr, Bruce W.; Bueckle, Andreas; Paul, Hrishikesh; Haniffa, Muzlifah et al

Nature Cell Biology 2021;23;11

The Human Reference Atlas (HRA) aims to map all of the cells of the human body to advance biomedical research and clinical practice. This Perspective presents collaborative work by members of 16 international consortia on two essential and interlinked parts of the HRA: (1) three-dimensional representations of anatomy that are linked to (2) tables that name and interlink major anatomical structures, cell types, plus biomarkers (ASCT+B). We discuss four examples that demonstrate the practical utility of the HRA. In this Perspective, Börner et al. discuss initiatives by 16 consortia to construct a Human Reference Atlas (HRA) comprising reference organs linked to tables that name major anatomical structures, cell types, plus biomarkers (ASCT+B) and present examples of HRA usage.

Editorial

Peer reviewed

Cell type ontologies of the Human Cell Atlas

Osumi-Sutherland, David; Xu, Chuan; Keays, Maria; Levine, Adam P.; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Regev, Aviv; Lein, Ed; Teichmann, Sarah A.

Nature Cell Biology 2021;23;11

Massive single-cell profiling efforts have accelerated our discovery of the cellular composition of the human body while at the same time raising the need to formalize this new knowledge. Here, we discuss current efforts to harmonize and integrate different sources of annotations of cell types and states into a reference cell ontology. We illustrate with examples how a unified ontology can consolidate and advance our understanding of cell types across scientific communities and biological domains. In this Perspective, Teichmann and colleagues present ongoing efforts from consortia of the Human Cell Atlas to harmonize and integrate data sources into a reference cell ontology and the contributions of cell ontologies to discovery.

Editorial

Pre-print
Networks
Development, Eye, Gut, Heart, Immune, Kidney, Liver, Lung, Musculoskeletal, Nervous system, Pancreas, Reproduction
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors

Comprehensive identification of fetal cis-regulatory elements in the human genome by single-cell multi-omics analysis

Hao Yu; Na Ai; Ping Peng; Yuwen Ke; Xuepeng Chen; Yun Li; Ting Zhao; Shan Jiang; Jiang Liu; Lan Jiang

bioRxiv 2021

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Networks
Gut
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

A proximal-to-distal survey of healthy adult human small intestine and colon epithelium by single-cell transcriptomics

Joseph Burclaff; R. Jarrett Bliton; Keith A Breau; Meryem T Ok; Ismael Gomez-Martinez; Jolene S Ranek; Aadra P Bhatt; Jeremy E Purvis; John T Woosley; Scott T Magness

bioRxiv 2021

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Topics
Computational Methods

DUBStepR is a scalable correlation-based feature selection method for accurately clustering single-cell data

Ranjan, Bobby; Sun, Wenjie; Park, Jinyu; Mishra, Kunal; Schmidt, Florian; Xie, Ronald; Alipour, Fatemeh; Singhal, Vipul; Joanito, Ignasius; Honardoost, Mohammad Amin et al

Nature Communications 2021;12;1

Feature selection (marker gene selection) is widely believed to improve clustering accuracy, and is thus a key component of single cell clustering pipelines. Existing feature selection methods perform inconsistently across datasets, occasionally even resulting in poorer clustering accuracy than without feature selection. Moreover, existing methods ignore information contained in gene-gene correlations. Here, we introduce DUBStepR (Determining the Underlying Basis using Stepwise Regression), a feature selection algorithm that leverages gene-gene correlations with a novel measure of inhomogeneity in feature space, termed the Density Index (DI). Despite selecting a relatively small number of genes, DUBStepR substantially outperformed existing single-cell feature selection methods across diverse clustering benchmarks. Additionally, DUBStepR was the only method to robustly deconvolve T and NK heterogeneity by identifying disease-associated common and rare cell types and subtypes in PBMCs from rheumatoid arthritis patients. DUBStepR is scalable to over a million cells, and can be straightforwardly applied to other data types such as single-cell ATAC-seq. We propose DUBStepR as a general-purpose feature selection solution for accurately clustering single-cell data. Cell-type-specific genes are often strongly correlated in expression - an informative yet underexplored property of single-cell data. Here, the authors leverage gene expression correlations to develop DUBStepR, a feature selection method for accurately clustering single-cell data.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Development

A roadmap for the Human Developmental Cell Atlas

Haniffa, Muzlifah; Taylor, Deanne; Linnarsson, Sten; Aronow, Bruce J.; Bader, Gary D.; Barker, Roger A.; Camara, Pablo G.; Camp, J. Gray; Chédotal, Alain; Copp, Andrew et al

Nature 2021;597;7875;196-205

The Human Developmental Cell Atlas (HDCA) initiative, which is part of the Human Cell Atlas, aims to create a comprehensive reference map of cells during development. This will be critical to understanding normal organogenesis, the effect of mutations, environmental factors and infectious agents on human development, congenital and childhood disorders, and the cellular basis of ageing, cancer and regenerative medicine. Here we outline the HDCA initiative and the challenges of mapping and modelling human development using state-of-the-art technologies to create a reference atlas across gestation. Similar to the Human Genome Project, the HDCA will integrate the output from a growing community of scientists who are mapping human development into a unified atlas. We describe the early milestones that have been achieved and the use of human stem-cell-derived cultures, organoids and animal models to inform the HDCA, especially for prenatal tissues that are hard to acquire. Finally, we provide a roadmap towards a complete atlas of human development. This Perspective outlines the Human Developmental Cell Atlas initiative, which uses state-of-the-art technologies to map and model human development across gestation, and discusses the early milestones that have been achieved.

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Peer reviewed

RCA2: a scalable supervised clustering algorithm that reduces batch effects in scRNA-seq data.

Schmidt F; Ranjan B; Lin QXX; Krishnan V; Joanito I; Honardoost MA; Nawaz Z; Venkatesh PN; Tan J; Rayan NA et al

Nucleic acids research 2021;49;15;8505-8519

The transcriptomic diversity of cell types in the human body can be analysed in unprecedented detail using single cell (SC) technologies. Unsupervised clustering of SC transcriptomes, which is the default technique for defining cell types, is prone to group cells by technical, rather than biological, variation. Compared to de-novo (unsupervised) clustering, we demonstrate using multiple benchmarks that supervised clustering, which uses reference transcriptomes as a guide, is robust to batch effects and data quality artifacts. Here, we present RCA2, the first algorithm to combine reference projection (batch effect robustness) with graph-based clustering (scalability). In addition, RCA2 provides a user-friendly framework incorporating multiple commonly used downstream analysis modules. RCA2 also provides new reference panels for human and mouse and supports generation of custom panels. Furthermore, RCA2 facilitates cell type-specific QC, which is essential for accurate clustering of data from heterogeneous tissues. We demonstrate the advantages of RCA2 on SC data from human bone marrow, healthy PBMCs and PBMCs from COVID-19 patients. Scalable supervised clustering methods such as RCA2 will facilitate unified analysis of cohort-scale SC datasets.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors

Pre-activated antiviral innate immunity in the upper airways controls early SARS-CoV-2 infection in children

Loske, J.; Röhmel, J.; Lukassen, S.; Stricker, S.; Magalhães, V. G.; Liebig, J.; Chua, R. L.; Thürmann, L.; Messingschlager, M.; Seegebarth, A. et al

Nature Biotechnology 2021

Children have reduced severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection rates and a substantially lower risk for developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 compared with adults. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying protection in younger age groups remain unknown. Here we characterize the single-cell transcriptional landscape in the upper airways of SARS-CoV-2-negative (n = 18) and age-matched SARS-CoV-2-positive (n = 24) children and corresponding samples from adults (n = 44), covering an age range of 4 weeks to 77 years. Children displayed higher basal expression of relevant pattern recognition receptors such as MDA5 (IFIH1) and RIG-I (DDX58) in upper airway epithelial cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, resulting in stronger innate antiviral responses upon SARS-CoV-2 infection than in adults. We further detected distinct immune cell subpopulations including KLRC1 (NKG2A)+ cytotoxic T cells and a CD8+ T cell population with a memory phenotype occurring predominantly in children. Our study provides evidence that the airway immune cells of children are primed for virus sensing, resulting in a stronger early innate antiviral response to SARS-CoV-2 infection than in adults. Single-cell sequencing reveals pre-activated immunity as important for milder COVID-19 symptoms in children.

Pre-print
Networks
Immune
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

Cross-tissue immune cell analysis reveals tissue-specific adaptations and clonal architecture in humans

C Domínguez Conde; C Xu; LB Jarvis; T Gomes; SK Howlett; DB Rainbow; O Suchanek; HW King; L Mamanova; K Polanski et al

bioRxiv 2021

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Networks
Lung
Topics
Healthy Donors, Disease Donors

Chronic lung diseases are associated with gene expression programs favoring SARS-CoV-2 entry and severity.

Bui LT; Winters NI; Chung MI; Joseph C; Gutierrez AJ; Habermann AC; Adams TS; Schupp JC; Poli S; Peter LM et al

Nature Communications 2021;12;1;4314

Patients with chronic lung disease (CLD) have an increased risk for severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and poor outcomes. Here, we analyze the transcriptomes of 611,398 single cells isolated from healthy and CLD lungs to identify molecular characteristics of lung cells that may account for worse COVID-19 outcomes in patients with chronic lung diseases. We observe a similar cellular distribution and relative expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors in control and CLD lungs. CLD AT2 cells express higher levels of genes linked directly to the efficiency of viral replication and the innate immune response. Additionally, we identify basal differences in inflammatory gene expression programs that highlight how CLD alters the inflammatory microenvironment encountered upon viral exposure to the peripheral lung. Our study indicates that CLD is accompanied by changes in cell-type-specific gene expression programs that prime the lung epithelium for and influence the innate and adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Peer reviewed

Towards a Human Cell Atlas: Taking Notes from the Past.

Lindeboom RGH; Regev A; Teichmann SA

Trends in genetics 2021;37;7;625-630

Comprehensively characterizing the cellular composition and organization of tissues has been a long-term scientific challenge that has limited our ability to study fundamental and clinical aspects of human physiology. The Human Cell Atlas (HCA) is a global collaborative effort to create a reference map of all human cells as a basis for both understanding human health and diagnosing, monitoring, and treating disease. Many aspects of the HCA are analogous to the Human Genome Project (HGP), whose completion presents a major milestone in modern biology. To commemorate the HGP's 20-year anniversary of completion, we discuss the launch of the HCA in light of the HGP, and highlight recent progress by the HCA consortium.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Computational Methods

Cell segmentation-free inference of cell types from in situ transcriptomics data.

Park J; Choi W; Tiesmeyer S; Long B; Borm LE; Garren E; Nguyen TN; Tasic B; Codeluppi S; Graf T et al

Nature Communications 2021;12;1;3545

Multiplexed fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques have enabled cell-type identification, linking transcriptional heterogeneity with spatial heterogeneity of cells. However, inaccurate cell segmentation reduces the efficacy of cell-type identification and tissue characterization. Here, we present a method called Spot-based Spatial cell-type Analysis by Multidimensional mRNA density estimation (SSAM), a robust cell segmentation-free computational framework for identifying cell-types and tissue domains in 2D and 3D. SSAM is applicable to a variety of in situ transcriptomics techniques and capable of integrating prior knowledge of cell types. We apply SSAM to three mouse brain tissue images: the somatosensory cortex imaged by osmFISH, the hypothalamic preoptic region by MERFISH, and the visual cortex by multiplexed smFISH. Here, we show that SSAM detects regions occupied by known cell types that were previously missed and discovers new cell types.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Computational Methods

Tutorial: guidelines for annotating single-cell transcriptomic maps using automated and manual methods

Clarke, Zoe A.; Andrews, Tallulah S.; Atif, Jawairia; Pouyabahar, Delaram; Innes, Brendan T.; MacParland, Sonya A.; Bader, Gary D.

Nature Protocols 2021;16;6;2749-2764

Single-cell transcriptomics can profile thousands of cells in a single experiment and identify novel cell types, states and dynamics in a wide variety of tissues and organisms. Standard experimental protocols and analysis workflows have been developed to create single-cell transcriptomic maps from tissues. This tutorial focuses on how to interpret these data to identify cell types, states and other biologically relevant patterns with the objective of creating an annotated map of cells. We recommend a three-step workflow including automatic cell annotation (wherever possible), manual cell annotation and verification. Frequently encountered challenges are discussed, as well as strategies to address them. Guiding principles and specific recommendations for software tools and resources that can be used for each step are covered, and an R notebook is included to help run the recommended workflow. Basic familiarity with computer software is assumed, and basic knowledge of programming (e.g., in the R language) is recommended. This tutorial provides guidelines for interpreting single-cell transcriptomic maps to identify cell types, states and other biologically relevant patterns.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Reproduction
Topics
Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Computational Methods

Single nucleus multi-omics regulatory landscape of the murine pituitary.

Ruf-Zamojski F; Zhang Z; Zamojski M; Smith GR; Mendelev N; Liu H; Nudelman G; Moriwaki M; Pincas H; Castanon RG et al

Nature Communications 2021;12;1;2677

To provide a multi-omics resource and investigate transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, we profile the transcriptome, chromatin accessibility, and methylation status of over 70,000 single nuclei (sn) from adult mouse pituitaries. Paired snRNAseq and snATACseq datasets from individual animals highlight a continuum between developmental epigenetically-encoded cell types and transcriptionally-determined transient cell states. Co-accessibility analysis-based identification of a putative Fshb cis-regulatory domain that overlaps the fertility-linked rs11031006 human polymorphism, followed by experimental validation illustrate the use of this resource for hypothesis generation. We also identify transcriptional and chromatin accessibility programs distinguishing each major cell type. Regulons, which are co-regulated gene sets sharing binding sites for a common transcription factor driver, recapitulate cell type clustering. We identify both cell type-specific and sex-specific regulons that are highly correlated with promoter accessibility, but not with methylation state, supporting the centrality of chromatin accessibility in shaping cell-defining transcriptional programs. The sn multi-omics atlas is accessible at snpituitaryatlas.princeton.edu.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Oral & Craniofacial
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods, COVID-19

SARS-CoV-2 infection of the oral cavity and saliva.

Huang N; Pérez P; Kato T; Mikami Y; Okuda K; Gilmore RC; Conde CD; Gasmi B; Stein S; Beach M et al

Nature Medicine 2021;27;5;892-903

Despite signs of infection-including taste loss, dry mouth and mucosal lesions such as ulcerations, enanthema and macules-the involvement of the oral cavity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is poorly understood. To address this, we generated and analyzed two single-cell RNA sequencing datasets of the human minor salivary glands and gingiva (9 samples, 13,824 cells), identifying 50 cell clusters. Using integrated cell normalization and annotation, we classified 34 unique cell subpopulations between glands and gingiva. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral entry factors such as ACE2 and TMPRSS members were broadly enriched in epithelial cells of the glands and oral mucosae. Using orthogonal RNA and protein expression assessments, we confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the glands and mucosae. Saliva from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals harbored epithelial cells exhibiting ACE2 and TMPRSS expression and sustained SARS-CoV-2 infection. Acellular and cellular salivary fractions from asymptomatic individuals were found to transmit SARS-CoV-2 ex vivo. Matched nasopharyngeal and saliva samples displayed distinct viral shedding dynamics, and salivary viral burden correlated with COVID-19 symptoms, including taste loss. Upon recovery, this asymptomatic cohort exhibited sustained salivary IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Collectively, these data show that the oral cavity is an important site for SARS-CoV-2 infection and implicate saliva as a potential route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

Peer reviewed
Topics
COVID-19

Single-cell multi-omics analysis of the immune response in COVID-19.

Stephenson E; Reynolds G; Botting RA; Calero-Nieto FJ; Morgan MD; Tuong ZK; Bach K; Sungnak W; Worlock KB; Yoshida M et al

Nature Medicine 2021;27;5;904-916

Analysis of human blood immune cells provides insights into the coordinated response to viral infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We performed single-cell transcriptome, surface proteome and T and B lymphocyte antigen receptor analyses of over 780,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a cross-sectional cohort of 130 patients with varying severities of COVID-19. We identified expansion of nonclassical monocytes expressing complement transcripts (CD16C1QA/B/C) that sequester platelets and were predicted to replenish the alveolar macrophage pool in COVID-19. Early, uncommitted CD34 hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells were primed toward megakaryopoiesis, accompanied by expanded megakaryocyte-committed progenitors and increased platelet activation. Clonally expanded CD8 T cells and an increased ratio of CD8 effector T cells to effector memory T cells characterized severe disease, while circulating follicular helper T cells accompanied mild disease. We observed a relative loss of IgA2 in symptomatic disease despite an overall expansion of plasmablasts and plasma cells. Our study highlights the coordinated immune response that contributes to COVID-19 pathogenesis and reveals discrete cellular components that can be targeted for therapy.

Peer reviewed
Topics
COVID-19

SARS-CoV-2 infection of the oral cavity and saliva.

Huang N; Pérez P; Kato T; Mikami Y; Okuda K; Gilmore RC; Conde CD; Gasmi B; Stein S; Beach M et al

Nature Medicine 2021;27;5;892-903

Despite signs of infection-including taste loss, dry mouth and mucosal lesions such as ulcerations, enanthema and macules-the involvement of the oral cavity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is poorly understood. To address this, we generated and analyzed two single-cell RNA sequencing datasets of the human minor salivary glands and gingiva (9 samples, 13,824 cells), identifying 50 cell clusters. Using integrated cell normalization and annotation, we classified 34 unique cell subpopulations between glands and gingiva. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral entry factors such as ACE2 and TMPRSS members were broadly enriched in epithelial cells of the glands and oral mucosae. Using orthogonal RNA and protein expression assessments, we confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the glands and mucosae. Saliva from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals harbored epithelial cells exhibiting ACE2 and TMPRSS expression and sustained SARS-CoV-2 infection. Acellular and cellular salivary fractions from asymptomatic individuals were found to transmit SARS-CoV-2 ex vivo. Matched nasopharyngeal and saliva samples displayed distinct viral shedding dynamics, and salivary viral burden correlated with COVID-19 symptoms, including taste loss. Upon recovery, this asymptomatic cohort exhibited sustained salivary IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Collectively, these data show that the oral cavity is an important site for SARS-CoV-2 infection and implicate saliva as a potential route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Disease Donors, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods, COVID-19

COVID-19 tissue atlases reveal SARS-CoV-2 pathology and cellular targets

Delorey, Toni M.; Ziegler, Carly G. K.; Heimberg, Graham; Normand, Rachelly; Yang, Yiming; Segerstolpe, Åsa; Abbondanza, Domenic; Fleming, Stephen J.; Subramanian, Ayshwarya; Montoro, Daniel T. et al

Nature 2021;595;7865;107-113

COVID-19, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, can result in acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure1–4, but little is known about its pathophysiology. Here we generated single-cell atlases of 24 lung, 16 kidney, 16 liver and 19 heart autopsy tissue samples and spatial atlases of 14 lung samples from donors who died of COVID-19. Integrated computational analysis uncovered substantial remodelling in the lung epithelial, immune and stromal compartments, with evidence of multiple paths of failed tissue regeneration, including defective alveolar type 2 differentiation and expansion of fibroblasts and putative TP63+ intrapulmonary basal-like progenitor cells. Viral RNAs were enriched in mononuclear phagocytic and endothelial lung cells, which induced specific host programs. Spatial analysis in lung distinguished inflammatory host responses in lung regions with and without viral RNA. Analysis of the other tissue atlases showed transcriptional alterations in multiple cell types in heart tissue from donors with COVID-19, and mapped cell types and genes implicated with disease severity based on COVID-19 genome-wide association studies. Our foundational dataset elucidates the biological effect of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection across the body, a key step towards new treatments. Single-cell analysis of lung, heart, kidney and liver autopsy samples shows the molecular and cellular changes and immune response resulting from severe COVID-19 infection.

Pre-print
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Profiling of transcribed cis-regulatory elements in single cells

Jonathan Moody; Tsukasa Kouno; Akari Suzuki; Youtaro Shibayama; Chikashi Terao; Jen-Chien Chang; Fernando López-Redondo; Chi Wai Yip; Jessica Severin; Hiroyuki Suetsugu et al

bioRxiv 2021;2021.04.04.438388

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods, COVID-19

Shotgun transcriptome, spatial omics, and isothermal profiling of SARS-CoV-2 infection reveals unique host responses, viral diversification, and drug interactions.

Butler D; Mozsary C; Meydan C; Foox J; Rosiene J; Shaiber A; Danko D; Afshinnekoo E; MacKay M; Sedlazeck FJ et al

Nature Communications 2021;12;1;1660

In less than nine months, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) killed over a million people, including >25,000 in New York City (NYC) alone. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 highlights clinical needs to detect infection, track strain evolution, and identify biomarkers of disease course. To address these challenges, we designed a fast (30-minute) colorimetric test (LAMP) for SARS-CoV-2 infection from naso/oropharyngeal swabs and a large-scale shotgun metatranscriptomics platform (total-RNA-seq) for host, viral, and microbial profiling. We applied these methods to clinical specimens gathered from 669 patients in New York City during the first two months of the outbreak, yielding a broad molecular portrait of the emerging COVID-19 disease. We find significant enrichment of a NYC-distinctive clade of the virus (20C), as well as host responses in interferon, ACE, hematological, and olfaction pathways. In addition, we use 50,821 patient records to find that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors have a protective effect for severe COVID-19 outcomes, unlike similar drugs. Finally, spatial transcriptomic data from COVID-19 patient autopsy tissues reveal distinct ACE2 expression loci, with macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the lungs. These findings can inform public health and may help develop and drive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic, prevention, and treatment strategies.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Musculoskeletal
Topics
Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

Mapping the musculoskeletal system one cell at a time

Baldwin, Mathew J.; Cribbs, Adam P.; Guilak, Farshid; Snelling, Sarah J. B.

Nature Reviews Rheumatology 2021;17;5;247-248

The Human Cell Atlas (HCA) project aims to map tissues and organs during development, maturation and pathology at single cell resolution. The musculoskeletal HCA network is a community for fostering collaboration and shared expertise to help develop the therapeutic approaches needed to address the high global burden of musculoskeletal disorders.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Lung
Topics
COVID-19

Single-cell meta-analysis of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes across tissues and demographics

Muus, Christoph; Luecken, Malte D.; Eraslan, Gökcen; Sikkema, Lisa; Waghray, Avinash; Heimberg, Graham; Kobayashi, Yoshihiko; Vaishnav, Eeshit Dhaval; Subramanian, Ayshwarya; Smillie, Christopher et al

Nature Medicine 2021;27;3;546-559

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and accessory proteases (TMPRSS2 and CTSL) are needed for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cellular entry, and their expression may shed light on viral tropism and impact across the body. We assessed the cell-type-specific expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSL across 107 single-cell RNA-sequencing studies from different tissues. ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSL are coexpressed in specific subsets of respiratory epithelial cells in the nasal passages, airways and alveoli, and in cells from other organs associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission or pathology. We performed a meta-analysis of 31 lung single-cell RNA-sequencing studies with 1,320,896 cells from 377 nasal, airway and lung parenchyma samples from 228 individuals. This revealed cell-type-specific associations of age, sex and smoking with expression levels of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSL. Expression of entry factors increased with age and in males, including in airway secretory cells and alveolar type 2 cells. Expression programs shared by ACE2+TMPRSS2+ cells in nasal, lung and gut tissues included genes that may mediate viral entry, key immune functions and epithelial–macrophage cross-talk, such as genes involved in the interleukin-6, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor and complement pathways. Cell-type-specific expression patterns may contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and our work highlights putative molecular pathways for therapeutic intervention. An integrated analysis of over 100 single-cell and single-nucleus transcriptomics studies illustrates severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral entry gene coexpression patterns across different human tissues, and shows association of age, smoking status and sex with viral entry gene expression in respiratory cell populations.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors

Single-Nucleus and In Situ RNA-Sequencing Reveal Cell Topographies in the Human Pancreas.

Tosti L; Hang Y; Debnath O; Tiesmeyer S; Trefzer T; Steiger K; Ten FW; Lukassen S; Ballke S; Kühl AA et al

Gastroenterology 2021;160;4;1330-1344.e11

Molecular evidence of cellular heterogeneity in the human exocrine pancreas has not been yet established because of the local concentration and cascade of hydrolytic enzymes that can rapidly degrade cells and RNA upon pancreatic resection. We sought to better understand the heterogeneity and cellular composition of the pancreas in neonates and adults in healthy and diseased conditions using single-cell sequencing approaches.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Open Access Data

Spatiotemporal analysis of human intestinal development at single-cell resolution.

Fawkner-Corbett D; Antanaviciute A; Parikh K; Jagielowicz M; Gerós AS; Gupta T; Ashley N; Khamis D; Fowler D; Morrissey E et al

Cell 2021;184;3;810-826.e23

Development of the human intestine is not well understood. Here, we link single-cell RNA sequencing and spatial transcriptomics to characterize intestinal morphogenesis through time. We identify 101 cell states including epithelial and mesenchymal progenitor populations and programs linked to key morphogenetic milestones. We describe principles of crypt-villus axis formation; neural, vascular, mesenchymal morphogenesis, and immune population of the developing gut. We identify the differentiation hierarchies of developing fibroblast and myofibroblast subtypes and describe diverse functions for these including as vascular niche cells. We pinpoint the origins of Peyer's patches and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and describe location-specific immune programs. We use our resource to present an unbiased analysis of morphogen gradients that direct sequential waves of cellular differentiation and define cells and locations linked to rare developmental intestinal disorders. We compile a publicly available online resource, spatio-temporal analysis resource of fetal intestinal development (STAR-FINDer), to facilitate further work.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Experimental Methods

Building a high-quality Human Cell Atlas

Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Shin, Jay W.; Rood, Jennifer E.; Hupalowska, Anna; Regev, Aviv; Heyn, Holger

Nature Biotechnology 2021;39;2;149-153

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods

Developmental cell programs are co-opted in inflammatory skin disease.

Reynolds G; Vegh P; Fletcher J; Poyner EFM; Stephenson E; Goh I; Botting RA; Huang N; Olabi B; Dubois A et al

Science 2021;371;6527

The skin confers biophysical and immunological protection through a complex cellular network established early in embryonic development. We profiled the transcriptomes of more than 500,000 single cells from developing human fetal skin, healthy adult skin, and adult skin with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. We leveraged these datasets to compare cell states across development, homeostasis, and disease. Our analysis revealed an enrichment of innate immune cells in skin during the first trimester and clonal expansion of disease-associated lymphocytes in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. We uncovered and validated in situ a reemergence of prenatal vascular endothelial cell and macrophage cellular programs in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis lesional skin. These data illustrate the dynamism of cutaneous immunity and provide opportunities for targeting pathological developmental programs in inflammatory skin diseases.

Press release

Peer reviewed
Networks
Organoid
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

The Organoid Cell Atlas.

Bock C; Boutros M; Camp JG; Clarke L; Clevers H; Knoblich JA; Liberali P; Regev A; Rios AC; Stegle O et al

Nature Biotechnology 2021;39;1;13-17

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

Integrated Single-Cell Atlas of Endothelial Cells of the Human Lung.

Schupp JC; Adams TS; Cosme C; Raredon MSB; Yuan Y; Omote N; Poli S; Chioccioli M; Rose KA; Manning EP et al

Circulation 2021;144;4;286-302

Cellular diversity of the lung endothelium has not been systematically characterized in humans. We provide a reference atlas of human lung endothelial cells (ECs) to facilitate a better understanding of the phenotypic diversity and composition of cells comprising the lung endothelium.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors

Human oral mucosa cell atlas reveals a stromal-neutrophil axis regulating tissue immunity.

Williams DW; Greenwell-Wild T; Brenchley L; Dutzan N; Overmiller A; Sawaya AP; Webb S; Martin D; ; Hajishengallis G et al

Cell 2021;184;15;4090-4104.e15

The oral mucosa remains an understudied barrier tissue. This is a site of rich exposure to antigens and commensals, and a tissue susceptible to one of the most prevalent human inflammatory diseases, periodontitis. To aid in understanding tissue-specific pathophysiology, we compile a single-cell transcriptome atlas of human oral mucosa in healthy individuals and patients with periodontitis. We uncover the complex cellular landscape of oral mucosal tissues and identify epithelial and stromal cell populations with inflammatory signatures that promote antimicrobial defenses and neutrophil recruitment. Our findings link exaggerated stromal cell responsiveness with enhanced neutrophil and leukocyte infiltration in periodontitis. Our work provides a resource characterizing the role of tissue stroma in regulating mucosal tissue homeostasis and disease pathogenesis.

Pre-print
Networks
Development, Lung
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Implicating Gene and Cell Networks Responsible for Differential COVID-19 Host Responses via an Interactive Single Cell Web Portal.

Jin K; Bardes EE; Mitelpunkt A; Wang JY; Bhatnagar S; Sengupta S; Krummel DP; Rothenberg ME; Aronow BJ

bioRxiv 2021

Numerous studies have provided single-cell transcriptome profiles of host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Critically lacking however is a datamine that allows users to compare and explore cell profiles to gain insights and develop new hypotheses. To accomplish this, we harmonized datasets from COVID-19 and other control condition blood, bronchoalveolar lavage, and tissue samples, and derived a compendium of gene signature modules per cell type, subtype, clinical condition, and compartment. We demonstrate approaches to probe these via a new interactive web portal (http://toppcell.cchmc.org/COVID-19). As examples, we develop three hypotheses: (1) a multicellular signaling cascade among alternatively differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages whose tasks include T cell recruitment and activation; (2) novel platelet subtypes with drastically modulated expression of genes responsible for adhesion, coagulation and thrombosis; and (3) a multilineage cell activator network able to drive extrafollicular B maturation via an ensemble of genes strongly associated with risk for developing post-viral autoimmunity.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Open Access Data, Computational Methods

scConsensus: combining supervised and unsupervised clustering for cell type identification in single-cell RNA sequencing data.

Ranjan B; Schmidt F; Sun W; Park J; Honardoost MA; Tan J; Arul Rayan N; Prabhakar S

BMC bioinformatics 2021;22;1;186

Clustering is a crucial step in the analysis of single-cell data. Clusters identified in an unsupervised manner are typically annotated to cell types based on differentially expressed genes. In contrast, supervised methods use a reference panel of labelled transcriptomes to guide both clustering and cell type identification. Supervised and unsupervised clustering approaches have their distinct advantages and limitations. Therefore, they can lead to different but often complementary clustering results. Hence, a consensus approach leveraging the merits of both clustering paradigms could result in a more accurate clustering and a more precise cell type annotation.

Peer reviewed

Integrative analysis of cell state changes in lung fibrosis with peripheral protein biomarkers.

Mayr CH; Simon LM; Leuschner G; Ansari M; Schniering J; Geyer PE; Angelidis I; Strunz M; Singh P; Kneidinger N et al

EMBO molecular medicine 2021;13;4;e12871

The correspondence of cell state changes in diseased organs to peripheral protein signatures is currently unknown. Here, we generated and integrated single-cell transcriptomic and proteomic data from multiple large pulmonary fibrosis patient cohorts. Integration of 233,638 single-cell transcriptomes (n = 61) across three independent cohorts enabled us to derive shifts in cell type proportions and a robust core set of genes altered in lung fibrosis for 45 cell types. Mass spectrometry analysis of lung lavage fluid (n = 124) and plasma (n = 141) proteomes identified distinct protein signatures correlated with diagnosis, lung function, and injury status. A novel SSTR2+ pericyte state correlated with disease severity and was reflected in lavage fluid by increased levels of the complement regulatory factor CFHR1. We further discovered CRTAC1 as a biomarker of alveolar type-2 epithelial cell health status in lavage fluid and plasma. Using cross-modal analysis and machine learning, we identified the cellular source of biomarkers and demonstrated that information transfer between modalities correctly predicts disease status, suggesting feasibility of clinical cell state monitoring through longitudinal sampling of body fluid proteomes.

Pre-print
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods, COVID-19

Systemic Tissue and Cellular Disruption from SARS-CoV-2 Infection revealed in COVID-19 Autopsies and Spatial Omics Tissue Maps.

Park J; Foox J; Hether T; Danko D; Warren S; Kim Y; Reeves J; Butler DJ; Mozsary C; Rosiene J et al

bioRxiv 2021

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has infected over 115 million people and caused over 2.5 million deaths worldwide. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical manifestations of COVID-19, as well as what distinguishes them from common seasonal influenza virus and other lung injury states such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), remains poorly understood. To address these challenges, we combined transcriptional profiling of 646 clinical nasopharyngeal swabs and 39 patient autopsy tissues, matched with spatial protein and expression profiling (GeoMx) across 357 tissue sections. These results define both body-wide and tissue-specific (heart, liver, lung, kidney, and lymph nodes) damage wrought by the SARS-CoV-2 infection, evident as a function of varying viral load (high vs. low) during the course of infection and specific, transcriptional dysregulation in splicing isoforms, T cell receptor expression, and cellular expression states. In particular, cardiac and lung tissues revealed the largest degree of splicing isoform switching and cell expression state loss. Overall, these findings reveal a systemic disruption of cellular and transcriptional pathways from COVID-19 across all tissues, which can inform subsequent studies to combat the mortality of COVID-19, as well to better understand the molecular dynamics of lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection and other viruses.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Computational Methods

Deep generative model embedding of single-cell RNA-Seq profiles on hyperspheres and hyperbolic spaces.

Ding J; Regev A

Nature Communications 2021;12;1;2554

Single-cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-seq) is invaluable for studying biological systems. Dimensionality reduction is a crucial step in interpreting the relation between cells in scRNA-seq data. However, current dimensionality reduction methods are often confounded by multiple simultaneous technical and biological variability, result in "crowding" of cells in the center of the latent space, or inadequately capture temporal relationships. Here, we introduce scPhere, a scalable deep generative model to embed cells into low-dimensional hyperspherical or hyperbolic spaces to accurately represent scRNA-seq data. ScPhere addresses multi-level, complex batch factors, facilitates the interactive visualization of large datasets, resolves cell crowding, and uncovers temporal trajectories. We demonstrate scPhere on nine large datasets in complex tissue from human patients or animal development. Our results show how scPhere facilitates the interpretation of scRNA-seq data by generating batch-invariant embeddings to map data from new individuals, identifies cell types affected by biological variables, infers cells' spatial positions in pre-defined biological specimens, and highlights complex cellular relations.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Disease Donors, Experimental Methods

Dissecting the Transcriptional and Chromatin Accessibility Heterogeneity of Proliferating Cone Precursors in Human Retinoblastoma Tumors by Single Cell Sequencing-Opening Pathways to New Therapeutic Strategies?

Collin J; Queen R; Zerti D; Steel DH; Bowen C; Parulekar M; Lako M

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 2021;62;6;18

Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a malignant neoplasm arising during retinal development from mutations in the RB1 gene. Loss or inactivation of both copies of RB1 results in initiation of retinoblastoma tumors; however, additional genetic changes are needed for the continued growth and spread of the tumor. Ex vivo research has shown that in humans, retinoblastoma may initiate from RB1-depleted cone precursors. Notwithstanding, it has not been possible to assess the full spectrum of clonal types within the tumor itself in vivo and the molecular changes occurring at the cells of origin, enabling their malignant conversion. To overcome these challenges, we have performed the first single cell (sc) RNA- and ATAC-Seq analyses of primary tumor tissues, enabling us to dissect the transcriptional and chromatin accessibility heterogeneity of proliferating cone precursors in human Rb tumors.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

Spatial and cell type transcriptional landscape of human cerebellar development.

Aldinger KA; Thomson Z; Phelps IG; Haldipur P; Deng M; Timms AE; Hirano M; Santpere G; Roco C; Rosenberg AB et al

Nature Neuroscience 2021;24;8;1163-1175

The human neonatal cerebellum is one-fourth of its adult size yet contains the blueprint required to integrate environmental cues with developing motor, cognitive and emotional skills into adulthood. Although mature cerebellar neuroanatomy is well studied, understanding of its developmental origins is limited. In this study, we systematically mapped the molecular, cellular and spatial composition of human fetal cerebellum by combining laser capture microscopy and SPLiT-seq single-nucleus transcriptomics. We profiled functionally distinct regions and gene expression dynamics within cell types and across development. The resulting cell atlas demonstrates that the molecular organization of the cerebellar anlage recapitulates cytoarchitecturally distinct regions and developmentally transient cell types that are distinct from the mouse cerebellum. By mapping genes dominant for pediatric and adult neurological disorders onto our dataset, we identify relevant cell types underlying disease mechanisms. These data provide a resource for probing the cellular basis of human cerebellar development and disease.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Computational Methods

Deep learning and alignment of spatially resolved single-cell transcriptomes with Tangram.

Biancalani T; Scalia G; Buffoni L; Avasthi R; Lu Z; Sanger A; Tokcan N; Vanderburg CR; Segerstolpe Å; Zhang M et al

Nature Methods 2021;18;11;1352-1362

Charting an organs' biological atlas requires us to spatially resolve the entire single-cell transcriptome, and to relate such cellular features to the anatomical scale. Single-cell and single-nucleus RNA-seq (sc/snRNA-seq) can profile cells comprehensively, but lose spatial information. Spatial transcriptomics allows for spatial measurements, but at lower resolution and with limited sensitivity. Targeted in situ technologies solve both issues, but are limited in gene throughput. To overcome these limitations we present Tangram, a method that aligns sc/snRNA-seq data to various forms of spatial data collected from the same region, including MERFISH, STARmap, smFISH, Spatial Transcriptomics (Visium) and histological images. Tangram can map any type of sc/snRNA-seq data, including multimodal data such as those from SHARE-seq, which we used to reveal spatial patterns of chromatin accessibility. We demonstrate Tangram on healthy mouse brain tissue, by reconstructing a genome-wide anatomically integrated spatial map at single-cell resolution of the visual and somatomotor areas.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Besca, a single-cell transcriptomics analysis toolkit to accelerate translational research.

Mädler SC; Julien-Laferriere A; Wyss L; Phan M; Sonrel A; Kang ASW; Ulrich E; Schmucki R; Zhang JD; Ebeling M et al

NAR genomics and bioinformatics 2021;3;4;lqab102

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) revolutionized our understanding of disease biology. The promise it presents to also transform translational research requires highly standardized and robust software workflows. Here, we present the toolkit Besca, which streamlines scRNA-seq analyses and their use to deconvolute bulk RNA-seq data according to current best practices. Beyond a standard workflow covering quality control, filtering, and clustering, two complementary Besca modules, utilizing hierarchical cell signatures and supervised machine learning, automate cell annotation and provide harmonized nomenclatures. Subsequently, the gene expression profiles can be employed to estimate cell type proportions in bulk transcriptomics data. Using multiple, diverse scRNA-seq datasets, some stemming from highly heterogeneous tumor tissue, we show how Besca aids acceleration, interoperability, reusability and interpretability of scRNA-seq data analyses, meeting crucial demands in translational research and beyond.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods

A single cell atlas of human cornea that defines its development, limbal progenitor cells and their interactions with the immune cells.

Collin J; Queen R; Zerti D; Bojic S; Dorgau B; Moyse N; Molina MM; Yang C; Dey S; Reynolds G et al

The ocular surface 2021;21;279-298

Single cell (sc) analyses of key embryonic, fetal and adult stages were performed to generate a comprehensive single cell atlas of all the corneal and adjacent conjunctival cell types from development to adulthood.

Peer reviewed

Blood and immune development in human fetal bone marrow and Down syndrome.

Jardine L; Webb S; Goh I; Quiroga Londoño M; Reynolds G; Mather M; Olabi B; Stephenson E; Botting RA; Horsfall D et al

Nature 2021;598;7880;327-331

Haematopoiesis in the bone marrow (BM) maintains blood and immune cell production throughout postnatal life. Haematopoiesis first emerges in human BM at 11-12 weeks after conception1,2, yet almost nothing is known about how fetal BM (FBM) evolves to meet the highly specialized needs of the fetus and newborn. Here we detail the development of FBM, including stroma, using multi-omic assessment of mRNA and multiplexed protein epitope expression. We find that the full blood and immune cell repertoire is established in FBM in a short time window of 6-7 weeks early in the second trimester. FBM promotes rapid and extensive diversification of myeloid cells, with granulocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cell subsets emerging for the first time. The substantial expansion of B lymphocytes in FBM contrasts with fetal liver at the same gestational age. Haematopoietic progenitors from fetal liver, FBM and cord blood exhibit transcriptional and functional differences that contribute to tissue-specific identity and cellular diversification. Endothelial cell types form distinct vascular structures that we show are regionally compartmentalized within FBM. Finally, we reveal selective disruption of B lymphocyte, erythroid and myeloid development owing to a cell-intrinsic differentiation bias as well as extrinsic regulation through an altered microenvironment in Down syndrome (trisomy 21).

Press release

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data

Cells of the human intestinal tract mapped across space and time.

Elmentaite R; Kumasaka N; Roberts K; Fleming A; Dann E; King HW; Kleshchevnikov V; Dabrowska M; Pritchard S; Bolt L et al

Nature 2021;597;7875;250-255

The cellular landscape of the human intestinal tract is dynamic throughout life, developing in utero and changing in response to functional requirements and environmental exposures. Here, to comprehensively map cell lineages, we use single-cell RNA sequencing and antigen receptor analysis of almost half a million cells from up to 5 anatomical regions in the developing and up to 11 distinct anatomical regions in the healthy paediatric and adult human gut. This reveals the existence of transcriptionally distinct BEST4 epithelial cells throughout the human intestinal tract. Furthermore, we implicate IgG sensing as a function of intestinal tuft cells. We describe neural cell populations in the developing enteric nervous system, and predict cell-type-specific expression of genes associated with Hirschsprung's disease. Finally, using a systems approach, we identify key cell players that drive the formation of secondary lymphoid tissue in early human development. We show that these programs are adopted in inflammatory bowel disease to recruit and retain immune cells at the site of inflammation. This catalogue of intestinal cells will provide new insights into cellular programs in development, homeostasis and disease.

Press release

Peer reviewed

A molecular single-cell lung atlas of lethal COVID-19.

Melms JC; Biermann J; Huang H; Wang Y; Nair A; Tagore S; Katsyv I; Rendeiro AF; Amin AD; Schapiro D et al

Nature 2021;595;7865;114-119

Respiratory failure is the leading cause of death in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection1,2, but the host response at the lung tissue level is poorly understood. Here we performed single-nucleus RNA sequencing of about 116,000 nuclei from the lungs of nineteen individuals who died of COVID-19 and underwent rapid autopsy and seven control individuals. Integrated analyses identified substantial alterations in cellular composition, transcriptional cell states, and cell-to-cell interactions, thereby providing insight into the biology of lethal COVID-19. The lungs from individuals with COVID-19 were highly inflamed, with dense infiltration of aberrantly activated monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages, but had impaired T cell responses. Monocyte/macrophage-derived interleukin-1β and epithelial cell-derived interleukin-6 were unique features of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to other viral and bacterial causes of pneumonia. Alveolar type 2 cells adopted an inflammation-associated transient progenitor cell state and failed to undergo full transition into alveolar type 1 cells, resulting in impaired lung regeneration. Furthermore, we identified expansion of recently described CTHRC1+ pathological fibroblasts3 contributing to rapidly ensuing pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19. Inference of protein activity and ligand-receptor interactions identified putative drug targets to disrupt deleterious circuits. This atlas enables the dissection of lethal COVID-19, may inform our understanding of long-term complications of COVID-19 survivors, and provides an important resource for therapeutic development.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, COVID-19

Hypertension delays viral clearance and exacerbates airway hyperinflammation in patients with COVID-19

Trump, Saskia; Lukassen, Soeren; Anker, Markus S.; Chua, Robert Lorenz; Liebig, Johannes; Thürmann, Loreen; Corman, Victor Max; Binder, Marco; Loske, Jennifer; Klasa, Christina et al

Nature Biotechnology 2020;39;6;705-716

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), hypertension and cardiovascular diseases are major risk factors for critical disease progression. However, the underlying causes and the effects of the main anti-hypertensive therapies—angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)—remain unclear. Combining clinical data (n = 144) and single-cell sequencing data of airway samples (n = 48) with in vitro experiments, we observed a distinct inflammatory predisposition of immune cells in patients with hypertension that correlated with critical COVID-19 progression. ACEI treatment was associated with dampened COVID-19-related hyperinflammation and with increased cell intrinsic antiviral responses, whereas ARB treatment related to enhanced epithelial–immune cell interactions. Macrophages and neutrophils of patients with hypertension, in particular under ARB treatment, exhibited higher expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines CCL3 and CCL4 and the chemokine receptor CCR1. Although the limited size of our cohort does not allow us to establish clinical efficacy, our data suggest that the clinical benefits of ACEI treatment in patients with COVID-19 who have hypertension warrant further investigation. Single-cell analysis reveals how anti-hypertensive drugs affect the risk of severe disease in patients with COVID-19 who have hypertension.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data

Single-Cell Sequencing of Developing Human Gut Reveals Transcriptional Links to Childhood Crohn's Disease.

Elmentaite R; Ross ADB; Roberts K; James KR; Ortmann D; Gomes T; Nayak K; Tuck L; Pritchard S; Bayraktar OA et al

Developmental cell 2020;55;6;771-783.e5

Human gut development requires the orchestrated interaction of differentiating cell types. Here, we generate an in-depth single-cell map of the developing human intestine at 6-10 weeks post-conception. Our analysis reveals the transcriptional profile of cycling epithelial precursor cells; distinct from LGR5-expressing cells. We propose that these cells may contribute to differentiated cell subsets via the generation of LGR5-expressing stem cells and receive signals from surrounding mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, we draw parallels between the transcriptomes of ex vivo tissues and in vitro fetal organoids, revealing the maturation of organoid cultures in a dish. Lastly, we compare scRNA-seq profiles from pediatric Crohn's disease epithelium alongside matched healthy controls to reveal disease-associated changes in the epithelial composition. Contrasting these with the fetal profiles reveals the re-activation of fetal transcription factors in Crohn's disease. Our study provides a resource available at www.gutcellatlas.org, and underscores the importance of unraveling fetal development in understanding disease.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects

A Single-Cell Atlas of the Human Healthy Airways.

Deprez M; Zaragosi LE; Truchi M; Becavin C; Ruiz García S; Arguel MJ; Plaisant M; Magnone V; Lebrigand K; Abelanet S et al

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 2020;202;12;1636-1645

The respiratory tract constitutes an elaborate line of defense that is based on a unique cellular ecosystem. We aimed to investigate cell population distributions and transcriptional changes along the airways by using single-cell RNA profiling. We have explored the cellular heterogeneity of the human airway epithelium in 10 healthy living volunteers by single-cell RNA profiling. A total of 77,969 cells were collected at 35 distinct locations, from the nose to the 12th division of the airway tree. The resulting atlas is composed of a high percentage of epithelial cells (89.1%) but also immune (6.2%) and stromal (4.7%) cells with distinct cellular proportions in different regions of the airways. It reveals differential gene expression between identical cell types (suprabasal, secretory, and multiciliated cells) from the nose (, , ) and tracheobronchial (, ) airways. By contrast, cell-type-specific gene expression is stable across all tracheobronchial samples. Our atlas improves the description of ionocytes, pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, and brush cells and identifies a related population of -positive cells. We also report the association of with dividing cells that are reminiscent of previously described mouse "hillock" cells and with squamous cells expressing and . Robust characterization of a single-cell cohort in healthy airways establishes a valuable resource for future investigations. The precise description of the continuum existing from the nasal epithelium to successive divisions of the airways and the stable gene expression profile of these regions better defines conditions under which relevant tracheobronchial proxies of human respiratory diseases can be developed.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, COVID-19

Longitudinal Multi-omics Analyses Identify Responses of Megakaryocytes, Erythroid Cells, and Plasmablasts as Hallmarks of Severe COVID-19.

Bernardes JP; Mishra N; Tran F; Bahmer T; Best L; Blase JI; Bordoni D; Franzenburg J; Geisen U; Josephs-Spaulding J et al

Immunity 2020;53;6;1296-1314.e9

Temporal resolution of cellular features associated with a severe COVID-19 disease trajectory is needed for understanding skewed immune responses and defining predictors of outcome. Here, we performed a longitudinal multi-omics study using a two-center cohort of 14 patients. We analyzed the bulk transcriptome, bulk DNA methylome, and single-cell transcriptome (>358,000 cells, including BCR profiles) of peripheral blood samples harvested from up to 5 time points. Validation was performed in two independent cohorts of COVID-19 patients. Severe COVID-19 was characterized by an increase of proliferating, metabolically hyperactive plasmablasts. Coinciding with critical illness, we also identified an expansion of interferon-activated circulating megakaryocytes and increased erythropoiesis with features of hypoxic signaling. Megakaryocyte- and erythroid-cell-derived co-expression modules were predictive of fatal disease outcome. The study demonstrates broad cellular effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection beyond adaptive immune cells and provides an entry point toward developing biomarkers and targeted treatments of patients with COVID-19.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Computational Methods

Gene set inference from single-cell sequencing data using a hybrid of matrix factorization and variational autoencoders

Lukassen, Soeren; Ten, Foo Wei; Adam, Lukas; Eils, Roland; Conrad, Christian

Nature Machine Intelligence 2020;2;12

Recent advances in single-cell RNA sequencing have driven the simultaneous measurement of the expression of thousands of genes in thousands of single cells. These growing datasets allow us to model gene sets in biological networks at an unprecedented level of detail, in spite of heterogeneous cell populations. Here, we propose a deep neural network model that is a hybrid of matrix factorization and variational autoencoders, which we call restricted latent variational autoencoder (resVAE). The model uses weights as factorized matrices to obtain gene sets, while class-specific inputs to the latent variable space facilitate a plausible identification of cell types. This artificial neural network model seamlessly integrates functional gene set inference, experimental covariate effect isolation, and static gene identification, which we conceptually demonstrate here for four single-cell RNA sequencing datasets. The wealth of data generated by single-cell RNA sequencing can be used to identify gene sets across cells, as well as to identify specific cells. Lukassen and colleagues propose a method combining matrix factorization and variational auto encoders that can capture both cross-cell and cell-specific information.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

Cells of the adult human heart.

Litviňuková M; Talavera-López C; Maatz H; Reichart D; Worth CL; Lindberg EL; Kanda M; Polanski K; Heinig M; Lee M et al

Nature 2020;588;7838;466-472

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Advanced insights into disease mechanisms and therapeutic strategies require a deeper understanding of the molecular processes involved in the healthy heart. Knowledge of the full repertoire of cardiac cells and their gene expression profiles is a fundamental first step in this endeavour. Here, using state-of-the-art analyses of large-scale single-cell and single-nucleus transcriptomes, we characterize six anatomical adult heart regions. Our results highlight the cellular heterogeneity of cardiomyocytes, pericytes and fibroblasts, and reveal distinct atrial and ventricular subsets of cells with diverse developmental origins and specialized properties. We define the complexity of the cardiac vasculature and its changes along the arterio-venous axis. In the immune compartment, we identify cardiac-resident macrophages with inflammatory and protective transcriptional signatures. Furthermore, analyses of cell-to-cell interactions highlight different networks of macrophages, fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes between atria and ventricles that are distinct from those of skeletal muscle. Our human cardiac cell atlas improves our understanding of the human heart and provides a valuable reference for future studies.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors

SARS-CoV-2 receptor networks in diabetic and COVID-19-associated kidney disease.

Menon R; Otto EA; Sealfon R; Nair V; Wong AK; Theesfeld CL; Chen X; Wang Y; Boppana AS; Luo J et al

Kidney international 2020;98;6;1502-1518

COVID-19 morbidity and mortality are increased via unknown mechanisms in patients with diabetes and kidney disease. SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for entry into host cells. Because ACE2 is a susceptibility factor for infection, we investigated how diabetic kidney disease and medications alter ACE2 receptor expression in kidneys. Single cell RNA profiling of kidney biopsies from healthy living donors and patients with diabetic kidney disease revealed ACE2 expression primarily in proximal tubular epithelial cells. This cell-specific localization was confirmed by in situ hybridization. ACE2 expression levels were unaltered by exposures to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in diabetic kidney disease. Bayesian integrative analysis of a large compendium of public -omics datasets identified molecular network modules induced in ACE2-expressing proximal tubular epithelial cells in diabetic kidney disease (searchable at hb.flatironinstitute.org/covid-kidney) that were linked to viral entry, immune activation, endomembrane reorganization, and RNA processing. The diabetic kidney disease ACE2-positive proximal tubular epithelial cell module overlapped with expression patterns seen in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. Similar cellular programs were seen in ACE2-positive proximal tubular epithelial cells obtained from urine samples of 13 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, suggesting a consistent ACE2-coregulated proximal tubular epithelial cell expression program that may interact with the SARS-CoV-2 infection processes. Thus SARS-CoV-2 receptor networks can seed further research into risk stratification and therapeutic strategies for COVID-19-related kidney damage.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

A human cell atlas of fetal gene expression.

Cao J; O'Day DR; Pliner HA; Kingsley PD; Deng M; Daza RM; Zager MA; Aldinger KA; Blecher-Gonen R; Zhang F et al

Science 2020;370;6518

The gene expression program underlying the specification of human cell types is of fundamental interest. We generated human cell atlases of gene expression and chromatin accessibility in fetal tissues. For gene expression, we applied three-level combinatorial indexing to >110 samples representing 15 organs, ultimately profiling ~4 million single cells. We leveraged the literature and other atlases to identify and annotate hundreds of cell types and subtypes, both within and across tissues. Our analyses focused on organ-specific specializations of broadly distributed cell types (such as blood, endothelial, and epithelial), sites of fetal erythropoiesis (which notably included the adrenal gland), and integration with mouse developmental atlases (such as conserved specification of blood cells). These data represent a rich resource for the exploration of in vivo human gene expression in diverse tissues and cell types.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

A human cell atlas of fetal chromatin accessibility.

Domcke S; Hill AJ; Daza RM; Cao J; O'Day DR; Pliner HA; Aldinger KA; Pokholok D; Zhang F; Milbank JH et al

Science 2020;370;6518

The chromatin landscape underlying the specification of human cell types is of fundamental interest. We generated human cell atlases of chromatin accessibility and gene expression in fetal tissues. For chromatin accessibility, we devised a three-level combinatorial indexing assay and applied it to 53 samples representing 15 organs, profiling ~800,000 single cells. We leveraged cell types defined by gene expression to annotate these data and cataloged hundreds of thousands of candidate regulatory elements that exhibit cell type-specific chromatin accessibility. We investigated the properties of lineage-specific transcription factors (such as POU2F1 in neurons), organ-specific specializations of broadly distributed cell types (such as blood and endothelial), and cell type-specific enrichments of complex trait heritability. These data represent a rich resource for the exploration of in vivo human gene regulation in diverse tissues and cell types.

Peer reviewed

The Human Cell Atlas and equity: lessons learned

Majumder, Partha P.; Mhlanga, Musa M.; Shalek, Alex K.

Nature Medicine 2020;26;10;1509-1511

The Human Cell Atlas has been undergoing a massive effort to support global scientific equity. The co-leaders of its Equity Working Group share some lessons learned in the process.

Peer reviewed

An era of single-cell genomics consortia.

Ando Y; Kwon AT; Shin JW

Experimental & molecular medicine 2020;52;9;1409-1418

The human body consists of 37 trillion single cells represented by over 50 organs that are stitched together to make us who we are, yet we still have very little understanding about the basic units of our body: what cell types and states make up our organs both compositionally and spatially. Previous efforts to profile a wide range of human cell types have been attempted by the FANTOM and GTEx consortia. Now, with the advancement in genomic technologies, profiling the human body at single-cell resolution is possible and will generate an unprecedented wealth of data that will accelerate basic and clinical research with tangible applications to future medicine. To date, several major organs have been profiled, but the challenges lie in ways to integrate single-cell genomics data in a meaningful way. In recent years, several consortia have begun to introduce harmonization and equity in data collection and analysis. Herein, we introduce existing and nascent single-cell genomics consortia, and present benefits to necessitate single-cell genomic consortia in a regional environment to achieve the universal human cell reference dataset.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Lung
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors

Myocyte-Specific Upregulation of in Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for SARS-CoV-2-Mediated Myocarditis.

Tucker NR; Chaffin M; Bedi KC; Papangeli I; Akkad AD; Arduini A; Hayat S; Eraslan G; Muus C; Bhattacharyya RP et al

Circulation 2020;142;7;708-710

Peer reviewed
Topics
Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

High throughput error corrected Nanopore single cell transcriptome sequencing.

Lebrigand K; Magnone V; Barbry P; Waldmann R

Nature Communications 2020;11;1;4025

Droplet-based high throughput single cell sequencing techniques tremendously advanced our insight into cell-to-cell heterogeneity. However, those approaches only allow analysis of one extremity of the transcript after short read sequencing. In consequence, information on splicing and sequence heterogeneity is lost. To overcome this limitation, several approaches that use long-read sequencing were introduced recently. Yet, those techniques are limited by low sequencing depth and/or lacking or inaccurate assignment of unique molecular identifiers (UMIs), which are critical for elimination of PCR bias and artifacts. We introduce ScNaUmi-seq, an approach that combines the high throughput of Oxford Nanopore sequencing with an accurate cell barcode and UMI assignment strategy. UMI guided error correction allows to generate high accuracy full length sequence information with the 10x Genomics single cell isolation system at high sequencing depths. We analyzed transcript isoform diversity in embryonic mouse brain and show that ScNaUmi-seq allows defining splicing and SNVs (RNA editing) at a single cell level.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, COVID-19

COVID-19 severity correlates with airway epithelium–immune cell interactions identified by single-cell analysis

Chua, Robert Lorenz; Lukassen, Soeren; Trump, Saskia; Hennig, Bianca P.; Wendisch, Daniel; Pott, Fabian; Debnath, Olivia; Thürmann, Loreen; Kurth, Florian; Völker, Maria Theresa et al

Nature Biotechnology 2020;38;8;970-979

To investigate the immune response and mechanisms associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on nasopharyngeal and bronchial samples from 19 clinically well-characterized patients with moderate or critical disease and from five healthy controls. We identified airway epithelial cell types and states vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In patients with COVID-19, epithelial cells showed an average three-fold increase in expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, which correlated with interferon signals by immune cells. Compared to moderate cases, critical cases exhibited stronger interactions between epithelial and immune cells, as indicated by ligand–receptor expression profiles, and activated immune cells, including inflammatory macrophages expressing CCL2, CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL10, IL8, IL1B and TNF. The transcriptional differences in critical cases compared to moderate cases likely contribute to clinical observations of heightened inflammatory tissue damage, lung injury and respiratory failure. Our data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of the CCR1 and/or CCR5 pathways might suppress immune hyperactivation in critical COVID-19. Single-cell analysis of COVID-19 patient samples identifies activated immune pathways that correlate with severe disease.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, COVID-19

SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are primarily expressed in bronchial transient secretory cells.

Lukassen S; Chua RL; Trefzer T; Kahn NC; Schneider MA; Muley T; Winter H; Meister M; Veith C; Boots AW et al

The EMBO journal 2020;39;10;e105114

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic affecting the human respiratory system severely challenges public health and urgently demands for increasing our understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis, especially host factors facilitating virus infection and replication. SARS-CoV-2 was reported to enter cells via binding to ACE2, followed by its priming by TMPRSS2. Here, we investigate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels and their distribution across cell types in lung tissue (twelve donors, 39,778 cells) and in cells derived from subsegmental bronchial branches (four donors, 17,521 cells) by single nuclei and single cell RNA sequencing, respectively. While TMPRSS2 is strongly expressed in both tissues, in the subsegmental bronchial branches ACE2 is predominantly expressed in a transient secretory cell type. Interestingly, these transiently differentiating cells show an enrichment for pathways related to RHO GTPase function and viral processes suggesting increased vulnerability for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data provide a rich resource for future investigations of COVID-19 infection and pathogenesis.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Disease Donors, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

A single-cell and single-nucleus RNA-Seq toolbox for fresh and frozen human tumors.

Slyper M; Porter CBM; Ashenberg O; Waldman J; Drokhlyansky E; Wakiro I; Smillie C; Smith-Rosario G; Wu J; Dionne D et al

Nature Medicine 2020;26;5;792-802

Single-cell genomics is essential to chart tumor ecosystems. Although single-cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq) profiles RNA from cells dissociated from fresh tumors, single-nucleus RNA-Seq (snRNA-Seq) is needed to profile frozen or hard-to-dissociate tumors. Each requires customization to different tissue and tumor types, posing a barrier to adoption. Here, we have developed a systematic toolbox for profiling fresh and frozen clinical tumor samples using scRNA-Seq and snRNA-Seq, respectively. We analyzed 216,490 cells and nuclei from 40 samples across 23 specimens spanning eight tumor types of varying tissue and sample characteristics. We evaluated protocols by cell and nucleus quality, recovery rate and cellular composition. scRNA-Seq and snRNA-Seq from matched samples recovered the same cell types, but at different proportions. Our work provides guidance for studies in a broad range of tumors, including criteria for testing and selecting methods from the toolbox for other tumors, thus paving the way for charting tumor atlases.

Pre-print
Topics
Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, COVID-19

Single-cell atlas of a non-human primate reveals new pathogenic mechanisms of COVID-19

Lei Han; Xiaoyu Wei; Chuanyu Liu; Giacomo Volpe; Zhifeng Wang; Taotao Pan; Yue Yuan; Ying Lei; Yiwei Lai; Carl Ward et al

bioRxiv 2020;2020.04.10.022103

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Networks
Lung

SARS-CoV-2 entry factors are highly expressed in nasal epithelial cells together with innate immune genes

Sungnak, Waradon; Huang, Ni; Bécavin, Christophe; Berg, Marijn; Queen, Rachel; Litvinukova, Monika; Talavera-López, Carlos; Maatz, Henrike; Reichart, Daniel; Sampaziotis, Fotios et al

Nature Medicine 2020;26;5;681-687

We investigated SARS-CoV-2 potential tropism by surveying expression of viral entry-associated genes in single-cell RNA-sequencing data from multiple tissues from healthy human donors. We co-detected these transcripts in specific respiratory, corneal and intestinal epithelial cells, potentially explaining the high efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. These genes are co-expressed in nasal epithelial cells with genes involved in innate immunity, highlighting the cells’ potential role in initial viral infection, spread and clearance. The study offers a useful resource for further lines of inquiry with valuable clinical samples from COVID-19 patients and we provide our data in a comprehensive, open and user-friendly fashion at www.covid19cellatlas.org. An analysis of single-cell transcriptomics datasets from different tissues shows that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are co-expressed in respiratory, corneal and intestinal epithelial cell populations, and that respiratory expression of ACE2 is associated with genes involved in innate immunity.

Pre-print
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

Single cell profiling of immature human postnatal thymocytes resolves the complexity of intra-thymic lineage differentiation and thymus seeding precursors

Marieke Lavaert; Kai Ling Liang; Niels Vandamme; Jong-Eun Park; Juliette Roels; Monica S. Kowalczyk; Bo Li; Orr Ashenberg; Marcin Tabaka; Danielle Dionne et al

bioRxiv 2020;2020.04.07.007237

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Topics
Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Benchmarking

Benchmarking single-cell RNA-sequencing protocols for cell atlas projects

Mereu, Elisabetta; Lafzi, Atefeh; Moutinho, Catia; Ziegenhain, Christoph; McCarthy, Davis J.; Álvarez-Varela, Adrián; Batlle, Eduard; Sagar; Grün, Dominic; Lau, Julia K. et al

Nature Biotechnology 2020;38;6;747-755

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is the leading technique for characterizing the transcriptomes of individual cells in a sample. The latest protocols are scalable to thousands of cells and are being used to compile cell atlases of tissues, organs and organisms. However, the protocols differ substantially with respect to their RNA capture efficiency, bias, scale and costs, and their relative advantages for different applications are unclear. In the present study, we generated benchmark datasets to systematically evaluate protocols in terms of their power to comprehensively describe cell types and states. We performed a multicenter study comparing 13 commonly used scRNA-seq and single-nucleus RNA-seq protocols applied to a heterogeneous reference sample resource. Comparative analysis revealed marked differences in protocol performance. The protocols differed in library complexity and their ability to detect cell-type markers, impacting their predictive value and suitability for integration into reference cell atlases. These results provide guidance both for individual researchers and for consortium projects such as the Human Cell Atlas. A multicenter study compares 13 commonly used single-cell RNA-seq protocols.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

Construction of a human cell landscape at single-cell level

Han, Xiaoping; Zhou, Ziming; Fei, Lijiang; Sun, Huiyu; Wang, Renying; Chen, Yao; Chen, Haide; Wang, Jingjing; Tang, Huanna; Ge, Wenhao et al

Nature 2020;581;7808;303-309

Single-cell analysis is a valuable tool for dissecting cellular heterogeneity in complex systems1. However, a comprehensive single-cell atlas has not been achieved for humans. Here we use single-cell mRNA sequencing to determine the cell-type composition of all major human organs and construct a scheme for the human cell landscape (HCL). We have uncovered a single-cell hierarchy for many tissues that have not been well characterized. We established a ‘single-cell HCL analysis’ pipeline that helps to define human cell identity. Finally, we performed a single-cell comparative analysis of landscapes from human and mouse to identify conserved genetic networks. We found that stem and progenitor cells exhibit strong transcriptomic stochasticity, whereas differentiated cells are more distinct. Our results provide a useful resource for the study of human biology. Single-cell RNA sequencing is used to generate a dataset covering all major human organs in both adult and fetal stages, enabling comparison with similar datasets for mouse tissues.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors

Re-evaluation of human BDCA-2+ DC during acute sterile skin inflammation.

Chen YL; Gomes T; Hardman CS; Vieira Braga FA; Gutowska-Owsiak D; Salimi M; Gray N; Duncan DA; Reynolds G; Johnson D et al

The Journal of experimental medicine 2020;217;3

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce type I interferon (IFN-I) and are traditionally defined as being BDCA-2+CD123+. pDCs are not readily detectable in healthy human skin, but have been suggested to accumulate in wounds. Here, we describe a CD1a-bearing BDCA-2+CD123int DC subset that rapidly infiltrates human skin wounds and comprises a major DC population. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we show that these cells are largely activated DCs acquiring features compatible with lymph node homing and antigen presentation, but unexpectedly express both BDCA-2 and CD123, potentially mimicking pDCs. Furthermore, a third BDCA-2-expressing population, Axl+Siglec-6+ DCs (ASDC), was also found to infiltrate human skin during wounding. These data demonstrate early skin infiltration of a previously unrecognized CD123intBDCA-2+CD1a+ DC subset during acute sterile inflammation, and prompt a re-evaluation of previously ascribed pDC involvement in skin disease.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

Distinct microbial and immune niches of the human colon.

James KR; Gomes T; Elmentaite R; Kumar N; Gulliver EL; King HW; Stares MD; Bareham BR; Ferdinand JR; Petrova VN et al

Nature Immunology 2020;21;3;343-353

Gastrointestinal microbiota and immune cells interact closely and display regional specificity; however, little is known about how these communities differ with location. Here, we simultaneously assess microbiota and single immune cells across the healthy, adult human colon, with paired characterization of immune cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes, to delineate colonic immune niches at steady state. We describe distinct helper T cell activation and migration profiles along the colon and characterize the transcriptional adaptation trajectory of regulatory T cells between lymphoid tissue and colon. Finally, we show increasing B cell accumulation, clonal expansion and mutational frequency from the cecum to the sigmoid colon and link this to the increasing number of reactive bacterial species.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

A cell atlas of human thymic development defines T cell repertoire formation.

Park JE; Botting RA; Domínguez Conde C; Popescu DM; Lavaert M; Kunz DJ; Goh I; Stephenson E; Ragazzini R; Tuck E et al

Science 2020;367;6480

The thymus provides a nurturing environment for the differentiation and selection of T cells, a process orchestrated by their interaction with multiple thymic cell types. We used single-cell RNA sequencing to create a cell census of the human thymus across the life span and to reconstruct T cell differentiation trajectories and T cell receptor (TCR) recombination kinetics. Using this approach, we identified and located in situ CD8αα T cell populations, thymic fibroblast subtypes, and activated dendritic cell states. In addition, we reveal a bias in TCR recombination and selection, which is attributed to genomic position and the kinetics of lineage commitment. Taken together, our data provide a comprehensive atlas of the human thymus across the life span with new insights into human T cell development.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Open Access Data, Experimental Methods

Systematic Comparison of High-throughput Single-Cell and Single-Nucleus Transcriptomes during Cardiomyocyte Differentiation.

Selewa A; Dohn R; Eckart H; Lozano S; Xie B; Gauchat E; Elorbany R; Rhodes K; Burnett J; Gilad Y et al

Scientific reports 2020;10;1;1535

A comprehensive reference map of all cell types in the human body is necessary for improving our understanding of fundamental biological processes and in diagnosing and treating disease. High-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing techniques have emerged as powerful tools to identify and characterize cell types in complex and heterogeneous tissues. However, extracting intact cells from tissues and organs is often technically challenging or impossible, for example in heart or brain tissue. Single-nucleus RNA sequencing provides an alternative way to obtain transcriptome profiles of such tissues. To systematically assess the differences between high-throughput single-cell and single-nuclei RNA-seq approaches, we compared Drop-seq and DroNc-seq, two microfluidic-based 3' RNA capture technologies that profile total cellular and nuclear RNA, respectively, during a time course experiment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) differentiating into cardiomyocytes. Clustering of time-series transcriptomes from Drop-seq and DroNc-seq revealed six distinct cell types, five of which were found in both techniques. Furthermore, single-cell trajectories reconstructed from both techniques reproduced expected differentiation dynamics. We then applied DroNc-seq to postmortem heart tissue to test its performance on heterogeneous human tissue samples. Our data confirm that DroNc-seq yields similar results to Drop-seq on matched samples and can be successfully used to generate reference maps for the human cell atlas.

Peer reviewed
Networks
Lung
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, COVID-19

SARS-CoV-2 Receptor ACE2 Is an Interferon-Stimulated Gene in Human Airway Epithelial Cells and Is Detected in Specific Cell Subsets across Tissues.

Ziegler CGK; Allon SJ; Nyquist SK; Mbano IM; Miao VN; Tzouanas CN; Cao Y; Yousif AS; Bals J; Hauser BM et al

Cell 2020;181;5;1016-1035.e19

There is pressing urgency to understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. Here, we leverage human, non-human primate, and mouse single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung type II pneumocytes, ileal absorptive enterocytes, and nasal goblet secretory cells. Strikingly, we discovered that ACE2 is a human interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) in vitro using airway epithelial cells and extend our findings to in vivo viral infections. Our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could exploit species-specific interferon-driven upregulation of ACE2, a tissue-protective mediator during lung injury, to enhance infection.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

The Human and Mouse Enteric Nervous System at Single-Cell Resolution.

Drokhlyansky E; Smillie CS; Van Wittenberghe N; Ericsson M; Griffin GK; Eraslan G; Dionne D; Cuoco MS; Goder-Reiser MN; Sharova T et al

Cell 2020;182;6;1606-1622.e23

The enteric nervous system (ENS) coordinates diverse functions in the intestine but has eluded comprehensive molecular characterization because of the rarity and diversity of cells. Here we develop two methods to profile the ENS of adult mice and humans at single-cell resolution: RAISIN RNA-seq for profiling intact nuclei with ribosome-bound mRNA and MIRACL-seq for label-free enrichment of rare cell types by droplet-based profiling. The 1,187,535 nuclei in our mouse atlas include 5,068 neurons from the ileum and colon, revealing extraordinary neuron diversity. We highlight circadian expression changes in enteric neurons, show that disease-related genes are dysregulated with aging, and identify differences between the ileum and proximal/distal colon. In humans, we profile 436,202 nuclei, recovering 1,445 neurons, and identify conserved and species-specific transcriptional programs and putative neuro-epithelial, neuro-stromal, and neuro-immune interactions. The human ENS expresses risk genes for neuropathic, inflammatory, and extra-intestinal diseases, suggesting neuronal contributions to disease.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods

Sampling time-dependent artifacts in single-cell genomics studies.

Massoni-Badosa R; Iacono G; Moutinho C; Kulis M; Palau N; Marchese D; Rodríguez-Ubreva J; Ballestar E; Rodriguez-Esteban G; Marsal S et al

Genome biology 2020;21;1;112

Robust protocols and automation now enable large-scale single-cell RNA and ATAC sequencing experiments and their application on biobank and clinical cohorts. However, technical biases introduced during sample acquisition can hinder solid, reproducible results, and a systematic benchmarking is required before entering large-scale data production. Here, we report the existence and extent of gene expression and chromatin accessibility artifacts introduced during sampling and identify experimental and computational solutions for their prevention.

Pre-print

Batch-Corrected Distance Mitigates Temporal and Spatial Variability for Clustering and Visualization of Single-Cell Gene Expression Data.

Liang S; Dou J; Iqbal R; Chen K

bioRxiv 2020

Clustering and visualization are essential parts of single-cell gene expression data analysis. The Euclidean distance used in most distance-based methods is not optimal. Batch effect, i.e., the variability among samples gathered from different times, tissues, and patients, introduces large between-group distance and obscures the true identities of cells. To solve this problem, we introduce Batch-Corrected Distance (BCD), a metric using temporal/spatial locality of the batch effect to control for such factors. We validate BCD on a simulated data as well as applied it to a mouse retina development dataset and a lung dataset. We also found the utility of our approach in understanding the progression of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). BCD achieves more accurate clusters and better visualizations than state-of-the-art batch correction methods on longitudinal datasets. BCD can be directly integrated with most clustering and visualization methods to enable more scientific findings.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Healthy Donors, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods, Benchmarking

Systematic comparison of single-cell and single-nucleus RNA-sequencing methods.

Ding J; Adiconis X; Simmons SK; Kowalczyk MS; Hession CC; Marjanovic ND; Hughes TK; Wadsworth MH; Burks T; Nguyen LT et al

Nature Biotechnology 2020;38;6;737-746

The scale and capabilities of single-cell RNA-sequencing methods have expanded rapidly in recent years, enabling major discoveries and large-scale cell mapping efforts. However, these methods have not been systematically and comprehensively benchmarked. Here, we directly compare seven methods for single-cell and/or single-nucleus profiling-selecting representative methods based on their usage and our expertise and resources to prepare libraries-including two low-throughput and five high-throughput methods. We tested the methods on three types of samples: cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and brain tissue, generating 36 libraries in six separate experiments in a single center. To directly compare the methods and avoid processing differences introduced by the existing pipelines, we developed scumi, a flexible computational pipeline that can be used with any single-cell RNA-sequencing method. We evaluated the methods for both basic performance, such as the structure and alignment of reads, sensitivity and extent of multiplets, and for their ability to recover known biological information in the samples.

Peer reviewed

Toward a Common Coordinate Framework for the Human Body.

Rood JE; Stuart T; Ghazanfar S; Biancalani T; Fisher E; Butler A; Hupalowska A; Gaffney L; Mauck W; Eraslan G et al

Cell 2019;179;7;1455-1467

Understanding the genetic and molecular drivers of phenotypic heterogeneity across individuals is central to biology. As new technologies enable fine-grained and spatially resolved molecular profiling, we need new computational approaches to integrate data from the same organ across different individuals into a consistent reference and to construct maps of molecular and cellular organization at histological and anatomical scales. Here, we review previous efforts and discuss challenges involved in establishing such a common coordinate framework, the underlying map of tissues and organs. We focus on strategies to handle anatomical variation across individuals and highlight the need for new technologies and analytical methods spanning multiple hierarchical scales of spatial resolution.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

Resolving the fibrotic niche of human liver cirrhosis at single-cell level.

Ramachandran P; Dobie R; Wilson-Kanamori JR; Dora EF; Henderson BEP; Luu NT; Portman JR; Matchett KP; Brice M; Marwick JA et al

Nature 2019;575;7783;512-518

Liver cirrhosis is a major cause of death worldwide and is characterized by extensive fibrosis. There are currently no effective antifibrotic therapies available. To obtain a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis and enable the discovery of therapeutic targets, here we profile the transcriptomes of more than 100,000 single human cells, yielding molecular definitions for non-parenchymal cell types that are found in healthy and cirrhotic human liver. We identify a scar-associated TREM2CD9 subpopulation of macrophages, which expands in liver fibrosis, differentiates from circulating monocytes and is pro-fibrogenic. We also define ACKR1 and PLVAP endothelial cells that expand in cirrhosis, are topographically restricted to the fibrotic niche and enhance the transmigration of leucocytes. Multi-lineage modelling of ligand and receptor interactions between the scar-associated macrophages, endothelial cells and PDGFRα collagen-producing mesenchymal cells reveals intra-scar activity of several pro-fibrogenic pathways including TNFRSF12A, PDGFR and NOTCH signalling. Our work dissects unanticipated aspects of the cellular and molecular basis of human organ fibrosis at a single-cell level, and provides a conceptual framework for the discovery of rational therapeutic targets in liver cirrhosis.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

Decoding human fetal liver haematopoiesis.

Popescu DM; Botting RA; Stephenson E; Green K; Webb S; Jardine L; Calderbank EF; Polanski K; Goh I; Efremova M et al

Nature 2019;574;7778;365-371

Definitive haematopoiesis in the fetal liver supports self-renewal and differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors (HSC/MPPs) but remains poorly defined in humans. Here, using single-cell transcriptome profiling of approximately 140,000 liver and 74,000 skin, kidney and yolk sac cells, we identify the repertoire of human blood and immune cells during development. We infer differentiation trajectories from HSC/MPPs and evaluate the influence of the tissue microenvironment on blood and immune cell development. We reveal physiological erythropoiesis in fetal skin and the presence of mast cells, natural killer and innate lymphoid cell precursors in the yolk sac. We demonstrate a shift in the haemopoietic composition of fetal liver during gestation away from being predominantly erythroid, accompanied by a parallel change in differentiation potential of HSC/MPPs, which we functionally validate. Our integrated map of fetal liver haematopoiesis provides a blueprint for the study of paediatric blood and immune disorders, and a reference for harnessing the therapeutic potential of HSC/MPPs.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data

A single-cell transcriptome atlas of the adult human retina.

Lukowski SW; Lo CY; Sharov AA; Nguyen Q; Fang L; Hung SS; Zhu L; Zhang T; Grünert U; Nguyen T et al

The EMBO journal 2019;38;18;e100811

The retina is a specialized neural tissue that senses light and initiates image processing. Although the functional organization of specific retina cells has been well studied, the molecular profile of many cell types remains unclear in humans. To comprehensively profile the human retina, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on 20,009 cells from three donors and compiled a reference transcriptome atlas. Using unsupervised clustering analysis, we identified 18 transcriptionally distinct cell populations representing all known neural retinal cells: rod photoreceptors, cone photoreceptors, Müller glia, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, retinal ganglion cells, horizontal cells, astrocytes, and microglia. Our data captured molecular profiles for healthy and putative early degenerating rod photoreceptors, and revealed the loss of MALAT1 expression with longer post-mortem time, which potentially suggested a novel role of MALAT1 in rod photoreceptor degeneration. We have demonstrated the use of this retina transcriptome atlas to benchmark pluripotent stem cell-derived cone photoreceptors and an adult Müller glia cell line. This work provides an important reference with unprecedented insights into the transcriptional landscape of human retinal cells, which is fundamental to understanding retinal biology and disease.

Pre-print
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

Rewiring of the cellular and inter-cellular landscape of the human colon during ulcerative colitis

Christopher S. Smillie; Moshe Biton; Jose Ordovas-Montanes; Keri M. Sullivan; Grace Burgin; Daniel B. Graham; Rebecca H. Herbst; Noga Rogel; Michal Slyper; Julia Waldman et al

bioRxiv 2019;455451

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Pre-print
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors

Single cell transcriptome atlas of immune cells in human small intestine and in celiac disease

Nader Atlasy; Anna Bujko; Peter B Brazda; Eva Janssen-Megens; Espen S. Bækkevold; Jørgen Jahnsen; Frode L. Jahnsen; Hendrik G. Stunnenberg

bioRxiv 2019;721258

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

A human liver cell atlas reveals heterogeneity and epithelial progenitors.

Aizarani N; Saviano A; Sagar ; Mailly L; Durand S; Herman JS; Pessaux P; Baumert TF; Grün D

Nature 2019;572;7768;199-204

The human liver is an essential multifunctional organ. The incidence of liver diseases is rising and there are limited treatment options. However, the cellular composition of the liver remains poorly understood. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of about 10,000 cells from normal liver tissue from nine human donors to construct a human liver cell atlas. Our analysis identified previously unknown subtypes of endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, and hepatocytes, with transcriptome-wide zonation of some of these populations. We show that the EPCAM population is heterogeneous, comprising hepatocyte-biased and cholangiocyte populations as well as a TROP2 progenitor population with strong potential to form bipotent liver organoids. As a proof-of-principle, we used our atlas to unravel the phenotypic changes that occur in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and in human hepatocytes and liver endothelial cells engrafted into a mouse liver. Our human liver cell atlas provides a powerful resource to enable the discovery of previously unknown cell types in normal and diseased livers.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Experimental Methods

Nuclei multiplexing with barcoded antibodies for single-nucleus genomics.

Gaublomme JT; Li B; McCabe C; Knecht A; Yang Y; Drokhlyansky E; Van Wittenberghe N; Waldman J; Dionne D; Nguyen L et al

Nature Communications 2019;10;1;2907

Single-nucleus RNA-seq (snRNA-seq) enables the interrogation of cellular states in complex tissues that are challenging to dissociate or are frozen, and opens the way to human genetics studies, clinical trials, and precise cell atlases of large organs. However, such applications are currently limited by batch effects, processing, and costs. Here, we present an approach for multiplexing snRNA-seq, using sample-barcoded antibodies to uniquely label nuclei from distinct samples. Comparing human brain cortex samples profiled with or without hashing antibodies, we demonstrate that nucleus hashing does not significantly alter recovered profiles. We develop DemuxEM, a computational tool that detects inter-sample multiplets and assigns singlets to their sample of origin, and validate its accuracy using sex-specific gene expression, species-mixing and natural genetic variation. Our approach will facilitate tissue atlases of isogenic model organisms or from multiple biopsies or longitudinal samples of one donor, and large-scale perturbation screens.

Peer reviewed

A cellular census of human lungs identifies novel cell states in health and in asthma

Vieira Braga, Felipe A.; Kar, Gozde; Berg, Marijn; Carpaij, Orestes A.; Polanski, Krzysztof; Simon, Lukas M.; Brouwer, Sharon; Gomes, Tomás; Hesse, Laura; Jiang, Jian et al

Nature Medicine 2019;25;7;1153-1163

Human lungs enable efficient gas exchange and form an interface with the environment, which depends on mucosal immunity for protection against infectious agents. Tightly controlled interactions between structural and immune cells are required to maintain lung homeostasis. Here, we use single-cell transcriptomics to chart the cellular landscape of upper and lower airways and lung parenchyma in healthy lungs, and lower airways in asthmatic lungs. We report location-dependent airway epithelial cell states and a novel subset of tissue-resident memory T cells. In the lower airways of patients with asthma, mucous cell hyperplasia is shown to stem from a novel mucous ciliated cell state, as well as goblet cell hyperplasia. We report the presence of pathogenic effector type 2 helper T cells (TH2) in asthmatic lungs and find evidence for type 2 cytokines in maintaining the altered epithelial cell states. Unbiased analysis of cell–cell interactions identifies a shift from airway structural cell communication in healthy lungs to a TH2-dominated interactome in asthmatic lungs. Single-cell transcriptomics reveals immune and stromal compartment remodeling, including the enrichment of unique populations of epithelial cells and CD4+ T cells, in asthmatic lungs

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Disease Donors, Open Access Data

Single-Cell Transcriptomic Analysis of Human Lung Provides Insights into the Pathobiology of Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Reyfman PA; Walter JM; Joshi N; Anekalla KR; McQuattie-Pimentel AC; Chiu S; Fernandez R; Akbarpour M; Chen CI; Ren Z et al

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 2019;199;12;1517-1536

The contributions of diverse cell populations in the human lung to pulmonary fibrosis pathogenesis are poorly understood. Single-cell RNA sequencing can reveal changes within individual cell populations during pulmonary fibrosis that are important for disease pathogenesis. To determine whether single-cell RNA sequencing can reveal disease-related heterogeneity within alveolar macrophages, epithelial cells, or other cell types in lung tissue from subjects with pulmonary fibrosis compared with control subjects. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on lung tissue obtained from eight transplant donors and eight recipients with pulmonary fibrosis and on one bronchoscopic cryobiospy sample from a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We validated these data using RNA hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and bulk RNA-sequencing on flow-sorted cells from 22 additional subjects. We identified a distinct, novel population of profibrotic alveolar macrophages exclusively in patients with fibrosis. Within epithelial cells, the expression of genes involved in Wnt secretion and response was restricted to nonoverlapping cells. We identified rare cell populations including airway stem cells and senescent cells emerging during pulmonary fibrosis. We developed a web-based tool to explore these data. We generated a single-cell atlas of pulmonary fibrosis. Using this atlas, we demonstrated heterogeneity within alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells from subjects with pulmonary fibrosis. These results support the feasibility of discovery-based approaches using next-generation sequencing technologies to identify signaling pathways for targeting in the development of personalized therapies for patients with pulmonary fibrosis.

Peer reviewed

The Pediatric Cell Atlas: Defining the Growth Phase of Human Development at Single-Cell Resolution.

Taylor DM; Aronow BJ; Tan K; Bernt K; Salomonis N; Greene CS; Frolova A; Henrickson SE; Wells A; Pei L et al

Developmental cell 2019;49;1;10-29

Single-cell gene expression analyses of mammalian tissues have uncovered profound stage-specific molecular regulatory phenomena that have changed the understanding of unique cell types and signaling pathways critical for lineage determination, morphogenesis, and growth. We discuss here the case for a Pediatric Cell Atlas as part of the Human Cell Atlas consortium to provide single-cell profiles and spatial characterization of gene expression across human tissues and organs. Such data will complement adult and developmentally focused HCA projects to provide a rich cytogenomic framework for understanding not only pediatric health and disease but also environmental and genetic impacts across the human lifespan.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Human Subjects, Healthy Donors

scRNA-seq assessment of the human lung, spleen, and esophagus tissue stability after cold preservation.

Madissoon E; Wilbrey-Clark A; Miragaia RJ; Saeb-Parsy K; Mahbubani KT; Georgakopoulos N; Harding P; Polanski K; Huang N; Nowicki-Osuch K et al

Genome biology 2019;21;1;1

The Human Cell Atlas is a large international collaborative effort to map all cell types of the human body. Single-cell RNA sequencing can generate high-quality data for the delivery of such an atlas. However, delays between fresh sample collection and processing may lead to poor data and difficulties in experimental design.

Peer reviewed

Characterization of cell fate probabilities in single-cell data with Palantir.

Setty M; Kiseliovas V; Levine J; Gayoso A; Mazutis L; Pe'er D

Nature Biotechnology 2019;37;4;451-460

Single-cell RNA sequencing studies of differentiating systems have raised fundamental questions regarding the discrete versus continuous nature of both differentiation and cell fate. Here we present Palantir, an algorithm that models trajectories of differentiating cells by treating cell fate as a probabilistic process and leverages entropy to measure cell plasticity along the trajectory. Palantir generates a high-resolution pseudo-time ordering of cells and, for each cell state, assigns a probability of differentiating into each terminal state. We apply our algorithm to human bone marrow single-cell RNA sequencing data and detect important landmarks of hematopoietic differentiation. Palantir's resolution enables the identification of key transcription factors that drive lineage fate choice and closely track when cells lose plasticity. We show that Palantir outperforms existing algorithms in identifying cell lineages and recapitulating gene expression trends during differentiation, is generalizable to diverse tissue types, and is well-suited to resolving less-studied differentiating systems.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Healthy Donors, Experimental Methods, Computational Methods

Conserved cell types with divergent features in human versus mouse cortex.

Hodge RD; Bakken TE; Miller JA; Smith KA; Barkan ER; Graybuck LT; Close JL; Long B; Johansen N; Penn O et al

Nature 2019;573;7772;61-68

Elucidating the cellular architecture of the human cerebral cortex is central to understanding our cognitive abilities and susceptibility to disease. Here we used single-nucleus RNA-sequencing analysis to perform a comprehensive study of cell types in the middle temporal gyrus of human cortex. We identified a highly diverse set of excitatory and inhibitory neuron types that are mostly sparse, with excitatory types being less layer-restricted than expected. Comparison to similar mouse cortex single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets revealed a surprisingly well-conserved cellular architecture that enables matching of homologous types and predictions of properties of human cell types. Despite this general conservation, we also found extensive differences between homologous human and mouse cell types, including marked alterations in proportions, laminar distributions, gene expression and morphology. These species-specific features emphasize the importance of directly studying human brain.

Peer reviewed

Single cell dissection of plasma cell heterogeneity in symptomatic and asymptomatic myeloma.

Ledergor G; Weiner A; Zada M; Wang SY; Cohen YC; Gatt ME; Snir N; Magen H; Koren-Michowitz M; Herzog-Tzarfati K et al

Nature Medicine 2018;24;12;1867-1876

Multiple myeloma, a plasma cell malignancy, is the second most common blood cancer. Despite extensive research, disease heterogeneity is poorly characterized, hampering efforts for early diagnosis and improved treatments. Here, we apply single cell RNA sequencing to study the heterogeneity of 40 individuals along the multiple myeloma progression spectrum, including 11 healthy controls, demonstrating high interindividual variability that can be explained by expression of known multiple myeloma drivers and additional putative factors. We identify extensive subclonal structures for 10 of 29 individuals with multiple myeloma. In asymptomatic individuals with early disease and in those with minimal residual disease post-treatment, we detect rare tumor plasma cells with molecular characteristics similar to those of active myeloma, with possible implications for personalized therapies. Single cell analysis of rare circulating tumor cells allows for accurate liquid biopsy and detection of malignant plasma cells, which reflect bone marrow disease. Our work establishes single cell RNA sequencing for dissecting blood malignancies and devising detailed molecular characterization of tumor cells in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.

Peer reviewed

Single cell RNA sequencing of human liver reveals distinct intrahepatic macrophage populations.

MacParland SA; Liu JC; Ma XZ; Innes BT; Bartczak AM; Gage BK; Manuel J; Khuu N; Echeverri J; Linares I et al

Nature Communications 2018;9;1;4383

The liver is the largest solid organ in the body and is critical for metabolic and immune functions. However, little is known about the cells that make up the human liver and its immune microenvironment. Here we report a map of the cellular landscape of the human liver using single-cell RNA sequencing. We provide the transcriptional profiles of 8444 parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells obtained from the fractionation of fresh hepatic tissue from five human livers. Using gene expression patterns, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical examinations, we identify 20 discrete cell populations of hepatocytes, endothelial cells, cholangiocytes, hepatic stellate cells, B cells, conventional and non-conventional T cells, NK-like cells, and distinct intrahepatic monocyte/macrophage populations. Together, our study presents a comprehensive view of the human liver at single-cell resolution that outlines the characteristics of resident cells in the liver, and in particular provides a map of the human hepatic immune microenvironment.

Pre-print

The Human Cell Atlas White Paper

Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Stubbington, Michael; Ardlie, Kristin; Amit, Ido; Arlotta, Paola; Bader, Gary; Benoist, Christophe; Biton, Moshe et al

arXiv.org 2018

The Human Cell Atlas (HCA) will be made up of comprehensive reference maps of all human cells - the fundamental units of life - as a basis for understanding fundamental human biological processes and diagnosing, monitoring, and treating disease. It will help scientists understand how genetic variants impact disease risk, define drug toxicities, discover better therapies, and advance regenerative medicine. A resource of such ambition and scale should be built in stages, increasing in size, breadth, and resolution as technologies develop and understanding deepens. We will therefore pursue Phase 1 as a suite of flagship projects in key tissues, systems, and organs. We will bring together experts in biology, medicine, genomics, technology development and computation (including data analysis, software engineering, and visualization). We will also need standardized experimental and computational methods that will allow us to compare diverse cell and tissue types - and samples across human communities - in consistent ways, ensuring that the resulting resource is truly global. This document, the first version of the HCA White Paper, was written by experts in the field with feedback and suggestions from the HCA community, gathered during recent international meetings. The White Paper, released at the close of this yearlong planning process, will be a living document that evolves as the HCA community provides additional feedback, as technological and computational advances are made, and as lessons are learned during the construction of the atlas.

Peer reviewed
Topics
Model Organism Samples, Healthy Donors, Open Access Data, Computational Methods

Molecular Architecture of the Mouse Nervous System.

Zeisel A; Hochgerner H; Lönnerberg P; Johnsson A; Memic F; van der Zwan J; Häring M; Braun E; Borm LE; La Manno G et al

Cell 2018;174;4;999-1014.e22

The mammalian nervous system executes complex behaviors controlled by specialized, precisely positioned, and interacting cell types. Here, we used RNA sequencing of half a million single cells to create a detailed census of cell types in the mouse nervous system. We mapped cell types spatially and derived a hierarchical, data-driven taxonomy. Neurons were the most diverse and were grouped by developmental anatomical units and by the expression of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Neuronal diversity was driven by genes encoding cell identity, synaptic connectivity, neurotransmission, and membrane conductance. We discovered seven distinct, regionally restricted astrocyte types that obeyed developmental boundaries and correlated with the spatial distribution of key glutamate and glycine neurotransmitters. In contrast, oligodendrocytes showed a loss of regional identity followed by a secondary diversification. The resource presented here lays a solid foundation for understanding the molecular architecture of the mammalian nervous system and enables genetic manipulation of specific cell types.

Pre-print

Palantir characterizes cell fate continuities in human hematopoiesis

Manu Setty; Vaidotas Kiseliovas; Jacob Levine; Adam Gayoso; Linas Mazutis; Dana Pe’er

bioRxiv 2018;385328

bioRxiv - the preprint server for biology, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research and educational institution

Peer reviewed

Single-cell reconstruction of the early maternal-fetal interface in humans.

Vento-Tormo R; Efremova M; Botting RA; Turco MY; Vento-Tormo M; Meyer KB; Park JE; Stephenson E; Polański K; Goncalves A et al

Nature 2018;563;7731;347-353

During early human pregnancy the uterine mucosa transforms into the decidua, into which the fetal placenta implants and where placental trophoblast cells intermingle and communicate with maternal cells. Trophoblast-decidual interactions underlie common diseases of pregnancy, including pre-eclampsia and stillbirth. Here we profile the transcriptomes of about 70,000 single cells from first-trimester placentas with matched maternal blood and decidual cells. The cellular composition of human decidua reveals subsets of perivascular and stromal cells that are located in distinct decidual layers. There are three major subsets of decidual natural killer cells that have distinctive immunomodulatory and chemokine profiles. We develop a repository of ligand-receptor complexes and a statistical tool to predict the cell-type specificity of cell-cell communication via these molecular interactions. Our data identify many regulatory interactions that prevent harmful innate or adaptive immune responses in this environment. Our single-cell atlas of the maternal-fetal interface reveals the cellular organization of the decidua and placenta, and the interactions that are critical for placentation and reproductive success.

Peer reviewed

The Human Cell Atlas.

Regev A; Teichmann SA; Lander ES; Amit I; Benoist C; Birney E; Bodenmiller B; Campbell P; Carninci P; Clatworthy M et al

eLife 2017;6

The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early proofs-of-concept, and some design considerations for the Human Cell Atlas, including a commitment to open data, code, and community.

Peer reviewed

The Human Cell Atlas: from vision to reality.

Rozenblatt-Rosen O; Stubbington MJT; Regev A; Teichmann SA

Nature 2017;550;7677;451-453

  of